Before the second “Literary Zinoviev readings” timed to the 150th anniversary of the birth of Maxim Gorky, the correspondent “RG” has met with co-Chairman Zinoviev club MIA “Russia today”, full member of the International Slavic Academy of Sciences Olga Zinovieva.
Because of the dissent Alexander Zinoviev, the Soviet Union was objectionable, but after the expulsion, he did not smear her. Photo: Anton Denisov/TASS
She told about the attitude of the husband to Bitter, about how the decision was made to publish the “Yawning heights” and its consequences. The meeting was attended by the winner of the “Literary prize” Biographical Institute Alexander Zinoviev, Mikhail Fridman and Deputy head of the grant project “Historical and cultural Nizhny Novgorod club of Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas Nikolai (Kutepov),” science, Alexis deacon.
So three different names – Maxim Gorky, Alexander Zinoviev and Metropolitan Nikolai – are interrelated. How to explain it?
Olga Zinoviev: In this world there is a recognized authority. I’m part of this world and want to live in peace with him, to find ways of understanding, common ground. When we unwillingly ended up in Europe, my husband was friends with the Austrian cardinal Franz könig. Met with Italian cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi. Our house was presented to the whole world…
Alex invited me to the Bottom, when there was all-Russian philosophical Congress. I spent the round table devoted to Alexander Alexandrovich. Interest among the participants caused a special depth of thought Zinoviev and humanity. He is a man of peace. Philosopher, thinker, dumatel who talked to everyone.
Alex deacon: Metropolitan Nicholas is also a model of humanity. He was close to everyone who spoke with him. He is also a man of the world.
Club name Metropolitan Nicholas can connect people absolutely incompatible. The Lord on the festivals of the Church were gathered from a people who in another situation would never sit at one table.
Olga Zinoviev: On the same principle were held our of the USSR in Munich, where he met all sorts of people. For us did not exist the estates in the relationship.
Alex deacon: the Crucial role played by force of personality. We’re talking about three strong personalities, each in his era could unite people in a specific context.
How, by the way, Alexander Zinoviev to the Bitter attitude?
Olga Zinoviev: As property. He divided writers, artists, musicians, composers, scientists, architects and not their own. His – those whose authority, knowledge, level of creativity it takes. Gorky, Chekhov, Saltykov-Shchedrin – the. Petrov-Vodkin – the artist.
Predicted the tragic fate of Syria
In Nizhny Novgorod, Maxim Gorky, along with Valery Chkalov and Kozma Minin entered the three leaders of the campaign for assigned names great people airports. Would you have voted for whom?
Olga Zinoviev: As the widow of the participant of the great Patriotic war, pilot of attack aircraft I’d have to say “Chkalov”. But Bitter – a figure which gave the city a special literary recognition.
Mikhail Fridman: the Choice of name should only be associated with popular personalities, and with the historical need. Compare bitter, Chkalov St. Seraphim of Sarov is how to map the square with red.
Zinoviev in his book “Russian tragedy” patriotism is defined by the presence of the enemy…
Olga Zinoviev: It is natural. Only in the face of danger or tragedy, which threatens the country, there is this defensive reaction – patriotism. He charm of our country, the phenomenon of the Russian culture and identity. With this concept in Germany, France, Italy, we have not encountered. When we got kicked out of the Soviet Union, we flew around the world, and everywhere we were seen as messengers of the Soviet Union, in the high rank of the Ambassador – the Ambassador of culture and science. Had we never came to say anything bad about the Motherland. Not a country we turned back, and people who have high decision on its behalf.
In Germany it was not understood. The Germans said, “We can’t be patriots, proud of Germany. Calling himself a German, you are in the eyes of ordinary people turn into fascists.”
Alexander shared his thoughts on the future of Russia?
Olga Zinoviev: In 1999, when he decided to return Home, she was already very different: we were kicked out of the USSR, and we returned to Russia. But her husband said: “My country is in danger.” The bombing of Yugoslavia, he called the story that is being developed for the future of our country: first, will the Syria, the Middle East and then Russia. In this situation, says I can not remain indifferent.
Gaping void of loneliness
The decision to publish “the Yawning heights” you took together? Doubts have arisen?
Olga Zinoviev: No. It was immediately clear that we are talking about a grandiose work. The book pieces were sent to the West, knowing she can’t survive staying in Moscow. And when you put the last point, received an offer from Swiss publisher Vladimir Dmitrievich to publish a book. San Sanych said, “the Decision should be made by you. We worked together on the book. And you’re young. You have a small child. I have lived my terrible life – rich, vivid, dramatic. You know perfectly well that follow your decision to publish”.
I asked him: “can You live after having set the last point and you know that there is such a manuscript, but no book?” “No, of course”, he replied…
He expelled from the Institute of philosophy, deprived of degrees and honors, military awards, captain of the guards assault aviation demoted to the ranks, they cut the phone… We are facing a bottomless chasm of loneliness. Friends, acquaintances, students, colleagues at a General meeting of the Institute unanimously Zinoviev have betrayed anathema. And someone shouted: “Yes, shoot him!”
Before that, he was among the three leading logicians of the world. And then one book at once entered the era of eternity – such jealous friends and colleagues could not forgive.
Saving Alexander Alexandrovich life at the first attempt on his life?
Olga Zinoviev: He returned from the interview to the Agency “Reuters”. At the appointed time a car drove up. He was impetuous, flew. And had to run up and be at the door. Suddenly I hear her some fuss. Open and saw the tall man, depicting a drunken, choking Zinoviev. San Sanych engaged in Boxing, was able to fight back. But there was a “wardrobe”!
I’m in the kitchen – what would this defense: knives, huge brass mortar… Grab her heavy pestle, rushing back. Threaten to strike men in the head, but I can’t – I’m afraid to kill a man… Hit the collarbone. Bones crack, his hand fell with a whip. “Drunk” is rotated and soberly tells me “to give!” And down the stairs. Out of curiosity, look down, and there’s a group of friends…
In late July 1978 we were summoned to OVIR. And people with a rare surname Ivanov, not looking at us, shoved us passport to travel. Open seven days we need to fly. Ask: “what’s so urgent?” He looks up and says: “And then you all of our agents will spoil.”
Olga Zinoviev Photo: Ilya Sergeev/RG Key question
What should be the national idea of the country?
Olga Zinoviev: the Idea of national ideas… don’t understand what we’re looking for. We have our country, Russian people. This is the national idea. Welfare, perspective, development, future, protection of our borders. We must remember that you have only one Motherland, one nation, where you belong.
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zinovyev (October 29, 1922 – may 10, 2006) – writer, philosopher, publicist. Doctor of philosophical Sciences. Academician. Author of about 40 books. The only Russian winner of Alexis de Tocqueville. From 1940 to 1946 he served in the army and participated in the battles of the great Patriotic war.
From June 1941 he studied at flight school in Orsha (Belarus), which in the same year was evacuated to Gorky, placing in Tobolsk barracks on Voroshilov highway (now Gagarin Avenue).
Has gained worldwide fame after the publication of the satirical novel “the Yawning heights”. In 1978, together with his family expelled from the country and stripped of his Soviet citizenship. Returned Home in 1999.