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Today, October 31st in history

In this day were born:

1795 — John Keats (pictured), an English poet of the XIX century.

Born in London in the family of the landlord paid the stables. Having lost at the age of 14 parents, Keats was sent to London, where he enrolled in training to the surgeon and pharmacist Thomas Hammond in Edmonton. University education was beyond his means.

Studying medicine, Keats tries himself in versification and in the lecture books there are poems such as “Girlfriend, mug and tobacco snuff”. In 1816, Keats began to publish in the weekly “Eksaminer” published sonnet “To solitude”.

After passing the exams, Keats gets a right to practise as a surgeon and pharmacist, adulthood. However, training in the London hospitals, Keats soon left and made the final decision to devote himself to poetry.

In March, 1817 published the first collection of poems Keats – Poems. At the end of April, Keats returns to Margate, where he began the poem “Endymion”, which will make him famous.

Tightness in cash affected the health of Keats, his weak nature the body more weakened. A detrimental impact on his health, the love of a wayward beauty Fanny brown.

All this has spurred the development of hereditary tuberculosis. On a trip in 1818 to South Wales, the beneficial effect on the health of the poet, and he wrote a lot. Soon the disease came back, the last months of his life he spent in Italy, soaking his poems reverent celebration of nature and beauty.

Died February 23, 1821.

1821 — Karel Havlicek-Borovsky, Czech politician, poet and publicist, one of founders of Czech journalism, satire and literary criticism.

Born in the family of a merchant. After graduating in German Brod (today Havlickuv Brod), studied at Charles University in Prague (1838-1840), then in the theological Seminary, from which he was expelled for freedom (1841).

The study of languages, literature and history of the Slavic peoples closer together with Filorga, poet, and translator. The Jungmann and Filorga and poet P. Safarik. On the recommendation Safarik found a place a home teacher in Moscow, where he lived in 1843-1844. In these years began to form his Russophile and pan-Slavic sentiments.

On his return to Bohemia (Czech Republic) engaged in journalism. With the assistance of F. palacký became the editor of the Czech newspaper “the Prague news” (Pražské noviny; 1846-1848) and literary applications of the journal “Ceska vcela” (Česka včela). In these publications has published several articles in which he formulated the idea of Austroslavism. Were also articles in defense of the liberation struggle of the Irish people.

With the beginning of the revolution of 1848 left the “Prague news” and founded the political newspaper “Narodni Novyny” (Národní noviny), which has become an influential and popular on Czech liberals. In 1848 he was elected to the Bohemian diet and the Austrian Parliament. Was one of the organizers of the all-Slavic Congress in Prague, traveled to Poland and Croatia in order to attract the Polish and Croatian writers to participate in the Congress.

Opposed the repressive and reactionary regime in April 1849 was brought to justice. After the ban of the newspaper “Narodni Novyny” and its satirical application “Sotek” (Šotek; January 1850) until 1851 was published in Kutna Hora newspaper Slovan Bratislava (Slovan). In 1851 he published pamphleteering-polemical book “the Spirit of Narodnaya Gazeta” and “Kutnohorska letters” (Epištoly kutnohorské). In the same year, despite the fact that won a lawsuit in which he accused the content of articles, was secretly exiled to Brixen (Tyrol, now Bolzano in Italy).

In Prague Havlicku the patient was allowed to return to the serious illness of his wife only in April 1855, shortly before his death (and his return his wife died).

1825 — the Eugene Kvaternik (Eugen Kvaternik), Croatian writer and political activist, one of the founders of the Croatian party of rights (mind. in 1871).

1875 — Avetik Sahak Isahakyan, an Armenian poet, prose writer, publicist. Academician of the Armenian SSR (1943)(mind. 1957).

1912 – Jean Amery (real name Hans Mayer), an Austrian writer, journalist, film critic.

Born in Vienna, grew up in the town of Hohenems (Vorarlberg in the Alps). Studied in Vienna philosophy and literature. When being a student was fond of philosophy, was close to the Vienna philosophical mug. Along the way, 1934 was printed in the literary magazine “Die Brücke”.

Participated in the war, was arrested by the Gestapo, spent some time in the Belgian camp-fortress of Breendonk. After the war he returned to Brussels, took the pseudonym of modifying its own name in the French manner.

Since 1960, are published in his books. In 1960 – “Youth stars: Idols of our time”, a year later – “Charmed jazz” in 1963 – “Gerhardt Hauptmann. Eternal German”.

In 1964, yielding to the requests of German writer Helmut of Heissenbuttel, worked on radio in southern Germany, Jean Amery made a text about the fate of intellectuals in the camp, although up to this point did not want to write in German, not to talk about the camp experience, nor to set foot on German soil.

This speech marked the beginning of his work “Beyond guilt and atonement”, this work came out in 1966, and to this day remains one of the main books about the concentration camp, the Holocaust and the fate of the Jews.

In 1970, the American became the winner of German critics award, and two years later – prize of the Bavarian Academy of fine arts.

Another of the most famous books of Jean Amery — “Suicide”, released in 1976. Two years later, on 17 October 1978, he committed suicide in a Salzburg hotel by taking a lethal dose of barbiturates. He was buried in Vienna.

1970 — Elena Voynarovska, Russian-speaking Ukrainian singer, composer, author of songs and poems.

The events of the day:

1892 — Arthur Conan Doyle published the book “the adventures of Sherlock Holmes.”

1958 – Boris Pasternak wrote a letter to Nikita Khrushchev.

In 1958, Boris Pasternak was the second writer from Russia (after Ivan Bunin), awarded the Nobel prize. The award was accepted by Soviet propaganda as an excuse to intensify the persecution. The writer was under pressure, he was expelled from Union of Soviet Writers, published articles against him and of the novel “Doctor Zhivago”.

The then first Secretary of the Komsomol sevenfold announced that the Soviet government would interpose obstacles Pasternak, if he wants to leave the country.

In a telegram sent to the Swedish Academy, Pasternak wrote: “because of the importance that got me awarded the award in the society to which I belong, I must refuse it. Please don’t take offense by my voluntary refusal.”

The bar Council of the all-Union Agency on copyright protection on 31 October 1958 and he writes a letter to Khrushchev. Here is the text:

“Dear Nikita Sergeyevich, I appeal to You personally, and the CPSU and the Soviet government. The report t of the sevenfold I became aware that the government “would not be opposed no obstacle to my departure from the USSR”.

For me it’s impossible. I am tied to Russia by birth, life, work. I cannot conceive of my destiny separate and apart from it. Whatever my mistakes and errors, I could not imagine what will be in the center of this political campaign, which began to inflate around my name in the West.

Realizing this, I informed the Swedish Academy of my voluntary renunciation of the Nobel prize. Travel outside my homeland for me is tantamount to death, so I ask you not to take me this extreme measure. Hand on heart, I have done something for Soviet literature, and may still be useful.

B. Pasternak”.

Not for us to judge right or wrong was Pasternak, abandoning major literary awards of the world – the Nobel prize. But he behaved with dignity and to leave the country didn’t want – he said that he could not live in the everyday life of the West.

Boris Pasternak died of lung cancer on 30 may 1960 in Peredelkino. Hundreds of people came to see him on his last journey.