In this day were born:
1751 — Richard Brinsley Sheridan (pictured), the Anglo-Irish writer and politician.
Born in Dublin, in a fashion in those days, the street, Dorset street, 12 (later on Dorset street was born Sean O’casey), and was baptized 4 Nov. His father Thomas Sheridan was a theater Manager, was working at that time in the Theatre Royal Dublin, and his mother, Frances Sheridan, a writer (“the Memoirs of Sidney Biddulph”). She died when Sheridan was 15 years old.
Finished harrow, he studied jurisprudence.
In 1773, at the age of 21 years, Richard Sheridan married Elizabeth Linley. Less than two years later his first play, the Rivals, was staged in the “Covent garden” in London. The production was a success that helped Sheridan to enter in the fashionable circles of London society.
Soon after the success of “Rivals” of Sheridan and his father-in-law Thomas Linley the elder (eng.), a successful composer, he has staged the Opera, the Duenna. The play was very warmly accepted and the company gave 75 performances.
In 1776, Sheridan, his father-in-law, and another partner, bought a stake in the theater “druri-lane” and, two years later, bought it completely. For many years Sheridan was the Manager of the theatre, and later became the sole owner. Later all of his plays have been staged in this theatre. On 24 February 1809, the theatre burned to the ground.
Written in 1777 “School for scandal” (The School for Scandal) — one of the best English comedies of manners. It continued in the “Critique” in 1779.
In 1780, Sheridan entered Parliament as the ally of Charles James Fox . He is said to have paid members of Parliament Stafford five guineas in order to present them. As a result, his first speech in Parliament was a response against the allegations of bribery. When he was not re-elected to Parliament 32 years later, in 1812, his creditors surrounded him, and his last years were marred by debt and disappointment. On hearing about his debts, the American Congress offered Sheridan £ 20,000 in recognition of his efforts in preventing war for independence. The proposal was rejected.
In December 1815 he became ill, and could barely get out of bed. No one visited him, the playwright died in abject poverty. When Sheridan died, he was buried in poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey.
1762 — andré Marie de chénier, French poet.
Born in Istanbul in the family of a French diplomat. He was educated in Paris where her mother was a salon that was visited by many writers, scientists and artists.
Conventionally, the way of life of Chenier can be divided into two main stages. The first phase of Chenier’s life was marked by only travelling to Switzerland and Italy. To this period belong poems of Chenier on ancient motifs, as well as poems about free young life in Paris.
On his return from England, which coincided with the events of 1789, began the second period short of the life of chénier, which sadly resulted in his death on the scaffold. Chenier performs at this time is a thoughtful and courageous patriot and public figure, and this is reflected in his poetic creativity. Attention and observation Chenier, which he showed to life, visible in his early notes about the different characters that allows you to compare Chenier with La Bruyere. But Chenier is now not only the observer but also a participant of life. In 1789, chénier was “the Society of Tradenow”, founded by his friends and comrades at the College of Navarre, brothers Tradename and de Panami. Together with them, he warmly welcomed the revolution. The name printed on society: “Journal de la société de 1789” describes the prevailing mood.
However, Chenier and his friends are concerned about the unconstitutional activities of the clubs, breaking right and peaceful creative work of commissioners in the country. Brother Chenier Marie-Joseph catches up with the Jacobins, but he and Andre lays all hopes on the activities of legislators. About it and the first political paper Chenier: “advice to the French people about its real enemies”, dated August 28, 1790 Under the enemies of the people Chenier meant the Jacobins; he continued to criticize them in his articles, which appeared in 1792 in the journal “Journal de Paris”. The most famous of them is dedicated to the celebration of the rebel soldiers of the Swiss regiment Sotovie. Chenier gave speeches in the club “Feuillants”, and this success has led Chenier in journalism. With a passion for politics and politicized Muse: Chenier wrote an ode to Charlotte Corday. It is notable that reflects the attitude of the Chenier to the policy. In contrast to his brother, Chenier is held in the highest degree, proudly and independently. He rebuked the demagogues, which sees a new breed of flatterers. He tries on a beautiful toga lonely and misunderstood. “Well, honestly and sweetly he writes in one of his articles — for the sake of strict truths to be hate shameless oppressor, freedom of iniquity in the name of freedom itself”. Bitter prediction of sounds in the ode to Charlotte Corday praise of the “noble contempt” with which it is necessary to meet the penalty for their beliefs. The most hard-to-Jacobins were articles in the “Journal de Paris”: “What causes strife, leading to confusion France and stopping the introduction to her freedom” (26 Feb 1792) and “Letter of Louis XVI to the French people”. Chenier even offered to speak in defense of the king.
This kind of political activity in itself in those days hot struggle was dangerous. The Jacobins hated it frankly. In 1792, he left Paris and Versailles in the quiet, contemplative hermit, once again devoted himself entirely to poetry. It remains unknown why in the midst of the terror of 1793 chénier returned to Paris. He was arrested March 7, 1794, on suspicion in communications with the royalists, and was executed by the guillotine on 25 July 1794 (8 Thermidor year II) together with Jean Rouche.
1806 — Stepan Petrovich Shevyrev, Russian literary critic, literary historian, poet.
Was born in Saratov. Received education at home, he graduated with honors from the Noble boarding school under the Moscow University (1816-1822). Served in the Moscow archive of the Collegium of the Ministry of foreign Affairs. He was a literary-philosophical mug “Lyubomudrov”, which was attended by A. I. Koshelev, D. V. Venevitinov, I. V. Kireyevsky. Participated in the organization and publication of the literary magazine “Lyubomudrov” “Moscow Gazette” (1827-1830). Together with V. P. Titov, and N. A. Melgunov translated the book “On art and artists” L. Teak and by V. G. wackenroder.
Was a teacher of the son of Zinaida Volkonskaya. With him lived abroad in 1829-1832 by studying the history of art and architecture in Switzerland and Italy. Upon returning, he defended his dissertation, “Dante and his age” (1833). In the position of adjunct taught a course on the history of universal literature at the University of Moscow from January, 1834. After receiving a Ph. D. for the essay “the Theory of poetry in the historical development of ancient and new peoples” (1836), became a Professor at Moscow University (since 1837).
In 1835-1837 he was the leading critic of the magazine “Moscow observer”. Together with M. P. Pogodin published and edited the magazine “Moskvityanin” (1841-1856).
Was a supporter of the monarchist idea of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality”, were skeptical about the idealization of community Slavophiles. During the fight with count Bobrinsky at the meeting of the Society of Moscow artists (1857) broke a rib, was dismissed from service in 1860 he left Russia.
1821 — Fyodor Dostoevsky, Russian writer and thinker.
Was born in Moscow. He was the second child in the family.
In 1837, there are many important for the future writer of events: his mother dies, Maria Feodorovna, killed in a duel Alexander Pushkin, whose works of F. M. Dostoevsky were read with childhood, in addition, this year Fyodor arrives at the military engineering school in St. Petersburg.
Two years later, in 1839, Dostoevsky received the news of the murder of his father, Mikhail Andreevich, serfs.
His career Dostoevsky began as a translator: in 1843 out they translated “Eugenia Grande” by O. de Balzac. However, a year later in 1844, Dostoevsky wrote his first independent work, which immediately brought him fame loud – “Poor people” (published in 1846).
Following the story of the author of “the Double” was met with disbelief from critics.
In 1849 Dostoyevsky was arrested for participation in the circle of M. V. Petrashevsky. After 8 iesaceja trial the writer was convicted of “intent on the overthrow of… public order” and initially sentenced to death, who at the last moment was replaced by the civil penalty, deprivation of the rights of noble family, and four years of hard labor with subsequent delivery to the soldiers.
The next four years Dostoevsky spent in prison in Omsk. In 1854, when he expired four years that Dostoevsky was sentenced, he was released from prison and sent to a private in the seventh Siberian linear battalion. He served in the fortress of Semipalatinsk, and was promoted to warrant officer.
We happened to meet Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva, who later became his first wife.
Secret surveillance of a writer did not stop until the mid 1870-ies, although permission to live in St. Petersburg, was received in 1859.
In 1864 his wife dies of Dostoevsky, and in 1867 Dostoevsky married again to Anna Fosdick Snitkina, which became the good genius of the writer: helping to overcome, a passion for the game of roulette facilitated the creative process.
The last years of his life Dostoevsky was held in Staraya Russa town of the Novgorod province. These eight years were the most fruitful in the life of a writer: a novel “Demons”, “Teen”, “the Brothers Karamazov”.
In the winter of 1881 there was an aggravation of illness of the writer of emphysema, which led to his death.
1855 — Peter Gnedich, Russian writer, dramatist, translator, art historian, theatrical figure.
Born in Saint-Petersburg. The son of an engineer of Railways. He studied at the Academy of arts in St. Petersburg (1875-1879; not finished).
Made his debut in print with short stories in magazine “Niva” in 1877.
From the end of 1870-ies published novels, essays, satires, humorous pieces, poems, reviews in the newspaper “St. Petersburg Vedomosti”, the magazine “Krugozor”, “Jester”, “Fragments” and many other publications. He published books “Novels and stories” (1885), “Seventeen stories” (1888), “New stories” (vol. 1-2, 1890), “the Caucasian tales” (1894), “the Moment” (1896) and others, also the collections of humorous anecdotes “Dog’s flies” (t. 1-3, 1905-1908).
The author of the novel “Chinese shadows” (“Russian Herald”, 1894; special edition 1895), “the Burden of this world” (1899), “the Mist” (1899), “Bathing light” (1900)
The first piece “Door not locked” was staged on the Amateur scene in 1878, at the Alexandrinsky theater under the name “the bird is in the trap” in 1879. Staged in the Pushkin theater in Moscow “On the farm” (1881, published in 1883); repeatedly staged in different theatres. Success enjoyed staging plays with the overall liberal orientation, stage interesting, lively dialogue, “Rolling stone” (1889), “Burning the letters” (1890), “Winter” (1905), “Slaves” (1907), “Marsh lights” (1909) and others. Plays published in collections of “Six comedies” (1887), “the Second volume of comedies” (1894)
He translated Shakespeare’s tragedy “hamlet, Prince of Denmark”, “the taming of the shrew”.
The author of numerous works on the history of art, United in the book “the History of art from ancient times” (t. 1-3, 1885; reprinted several times), and his memoirs, “the Book of life. Memories. 1855-1918” (Leningrad, 1929).
1871 — Paul valéry, French writer.
Born in Sète, a small town on the Mediterranean coast. His father was a Corsican, the mother a native of Genoa. Childhood and youth passed Valerie in Montpellier, a major city near the Set. Having received a traditional Catholic education, he studied law at University and then moved to Paris, where he lived almost all his life. There for some time, he was close to the circle of the poet Stefan mallarmé.
In Paris, Valerie served for a time as a clerk in the war Department. He soon found another job, becoming a personal Secretary to Edouard Loeb, former Director of the Agency “Havas”. Here he worked for about twenty years, until his death Leba in 1922. Published Valerie was still in University, but professionally engaged in literature only in the 1920s. Valerie wrote many essays, prefaces to the works of different authors, is an avid speaker. In 1925 he was elected to the French Academy. By this time, he was already a famous person in France. He toured Europe, giving lectures on cultural and social topics. In the League of Nations he represents the cultural interests of France, and participated in several meetings.
In 1931, Valerie founded the international College in Cannes, a private institution, studying French language and culture. The College operates.
In 1932, the German celebration of the 100th anniversary since the death of Goethe, he makes the main report. The poet was close to Goethe — Valerie shared his love of science (specifically, biology and optics).
Valerie was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences, was the so-called National front of writers (Front national des Ecrivains). During the Second world war, Valerie took a few of these posts, because of his refusal to cooperate with the Vichy regime. But Valerie all these difficult years, continued to work and publish, remaining a prominent figure in French cultural life.
In 1900, the year he married Zhanni, Gobear, the niece of Berthe Morisot and her family friend, mallarmé. Valerie and Gobear had three children: Claude, Agathe, and françois.
Valéry died in Paris in 1945. He was buried in a cemetery in his hometown of Sète, the same cemetery referred to in the famous poem le Cimetière marin (“the Graveyard by the sea”).
1885 — Ezra pound, American poet.
Born in America, in Idaho. He studied at Montgomery County (Pennsylvania), taught romance languages in Indiana. In 1908 he moved to London, where he met W. B. Yeats and for some time was its Secretary. He soon began to publish his first book of poems and translations from the Italian (Guido Cavalcanti), Chinese and Japanese poets. It free translations of pound of Chinese poetry made by podstranice of japonica Ernest Fenollosa and published as a book “Cathay” in 1915, became a modern Anglo-American poetry as a model of what we now call vers Libre, or “free verse”.
Pound — one of the main representatives of the poetic direction, called imagesmom. In 1915, he published the book “Des Imagistes,” which was an anthology of poetry and theory imagism. Since the 1920’s, pound translated much poetry from different languages, simultaneously to the limit of saturating their own poems (join in the Grand modernist epic “Cantos” (“Songs”) and published from 1917 to 1970) quotations, allusions to broad layers of the world culture. At the same time appeared in print as a critic, analyzing the works of his contemporaries T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert frost, D. H. Lawrence and Ernest Hemingway. In 1916 was published in the literary journal the American “little Revue”, founded by Jane heap and Margaret Anderson.
With 1920, pound lived in Paris, c 1925 in the Italian town of Rapallo. He welcomed the fascist regime of Mussolini. During the Second world war, he led a program of Italian radio in English, including anti-American and anti-Semitic, supported the war against the Soviet Union and criticized the foreign policy of Franklin Roosevelt, urging the latter to move to the side of the Third Reich.
In the years 1945-1948 the pound was in a pow camp in Pisa, in 1948, was sent to Washington and prosecuted for the propaganda of fascism (though in fact – for his antirostovschicheskoy activities and criticism of bankocracy), but was declared incompetent and placed in a psychiatric Hospital St. Elizabeth. In 1949 the pound was awarded the prestigious Burlingtonschool prize of the library of Congress (Bollingen Prize) for the book “the Pisan Cantos” that has caused a real split in the American literary elite. For example, Vladimir Nabokov negatively responded about creativity of the pound.
During his hospital confinement pound translated, in particular, “Shijing” (“Book of Songs” attributed to Confucius), as well as two plays of Sophocles. He talked a lot with the literary youth who came to him in the hospital: Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg and others. In 1958, after numerous requests for clemency from prominent writers, pound was released from the hospital and returned to Italy. He died in Venice, two days after his 87th anniversary, and was buried in the famous cemetery of San Michele.
1937 — Aron Yakovlevich Krupp, Soviet poet, bard, a classic “tourist” areas in the author’s song.
Born in the Latvian city of Daugavpils. In the war he lived in evacuation in Alma-ATA, after the war in Liepaja (Latvia). Graduated from the Leningrad Institute of cinema engineers (1964), the distribution went to Minsk and worked as an engineer-optician at the plant after S. I. Vavilov.
Since 1959, Krupp began writing songs to his poems. Was a laureate of the competitions of tourist tracks I and II all-Union campaigns of youth in Brest (1965) and Moscow (1966), participated in the festival in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok (1968). Krupp was the first Chairman of the Minsk KSP “Swag”. Fond of trekking and climbing, participated in the difficult campaigns of geologists, the Kola Peninsula, Polar Ural.
25 Mar 1971 Aric Krupp, together with eight comrades were killed in an avalanche during a trek in the Eastern Sayan.
On this day died:
1760 Christian Ludwig Liskov (Christian Ludwig Liscow), German satirist (b. 1701).
1909 — Arseniy Ivanovich Vvedensky, a Russian literary critic, bibliographer, historian of literature.
Born 7 Nov 1844 in Tver province. In 1875 he graduated from the Seminary, and later the Tver Seminary. In 1865 Arseny Ivanovich entered the St. Petersburg University in physics and mathematics faculty, but did not finish any course.
In 1876 was published the first reviews and reviews Vvedensky. It was the beginning of his literary career. Arseny Ivanovich wrote critical articles, sketches and reviews in “Word”, “Northern Herald”, “Herald of Europe”, “Case”, “Field”, “Historical journal”. He gave the characteristics of such writers as N. With. Leskov, N.. Leikin, caunt salias, Vsevolod Krestovsky, V. G. Korolenko, F. M. Dostoevsky, V. M. Garshin and many others.
At the beginning of 1880-x years wrote critical satires in “the system”, “Voice”, “Russian Gazette”, and later collaborated in the “New times”. Used the alias Aristarkhov.
Edited by Vvedensky out of the collected works of A. S. Griboedov, I. Kozlova, A. V. Koltsov, A. I. Polezhaev, M. V. Lomonosov, D. I. Fonvizin and Catherine II, as well as “Complete works” of M. Y. Lermontov.
As a historian of literature Vvedensky belonged to the cultural-historical school, and therefore in these sketches of artwork are always considered from the point of view of the growth of social consciousness.
1977 — Krklec Gustav (Gustav Krklec) (b. 1899), a Croatian poet, essayist, translator.
1982 — Iryna Vilde (real name is Darya Dmitrievna, Polotnjuk), Ukrainian writer (b. 1907).
1993 — Antanas Ramonas (Antanas Ramonas), Lithuanian writer (b. 1947).
The events of the day:
1888 — John laud received a patent for a ballpoint pen.
The invention of the principle of operation of the ballpoint pen is officially dated to the end of the 19th century – October 30, 1888 received a patent of laud John (John Loud), in 1916 – van Vechten Raizberg (Van Vechten Reisberg).
At the end of the 1930-ies similar to a modern ballpoint pen is patented by Hungarian journalist Laszlo Josef Biro. Actually, he was not only a journalist but also an inventor. A ballpoint pen he designed it due to the fact that we had a lot of writing ordinary pen, which required inkwells and leave blots.
The invention seemed promising in monetary terms. Almost immediately, the patent for the production of ballpoint pens was bought by the Royal air force for its pilots. It was extremely uncomfortable to mess with fountain pens in the air. Moving to Argentina Biro rebooked his patent and to great advantage sold it for $1 million of Eversharp. The Argentine company has established the world’s first mass-produced ballpoint pens for everyone. Trade within the country was perfect: low cost and practicality of the new device captured a lot of customers.
American salesman Milton Reynolds, traveling to Argentina, accidentally bought a few pens on the street. Business acumen prompted Reynolds, what an enormous profit to be learned from this simple little things, if you sell it in large quantities. He made inquiries and learned that the invention patented by Hungarian journalist just two countries, and the largest and richest market – the US – is not closed to him by any patent. Reynolds rushed to reserve this market for themselves.
In 1943, he patented a ballpoint pen in the US and has established its mass production. As Reynolds predicted, the success of a ballpoint pen was huge. Only one day in the store Gimbel in new York was sold 10 thousand. It’s funny that the first buyers were attracted by the slogan that the new pen can write underwater.
This simple thing made Milton Reynolds millionaire. The inventor Biro tried to defend their right to a patent in a us court, but lost.
And the invention has not yet exhausted by the time its full potential, “the Creator of millionaires”: in 1958, the Frenchman Marcel Bich finalized it and got supercheap in the production model called BIC, which initiated the creation of BIC Corporation, and now controls one-third of the market sales of ballpoint pens in the United States.
1938 — in the USA, on CBS radio hosted the stream of radio science fiction novel by Hg wells “war of the worlds”, stylized as live coverage from the event. Many Americans believed in the reality of the events that have caused unprecedented panic.