In this day were born:
1894 – Georgy Vladimirovich Ivanov (on a photo), Russian poet, novelist, translator.
Born in Kovno province, into a poor noble family with military traditions. Childhood years were spent in the estate Studenci, on the border with Poland. Primary education received at home, then studied at the Second cadet corps. Here he began to write poetry. In 1910 he graduated from the cadet corps, began to publish in different journals, such as “Apollo”, “Contemporary” and others.
In 1912, Ivanov comes into acoustically “Workshop of poets”, participates in all the meetings, study groups, publications, speaking as a literary critic akoestische direction. In 1912 he published his first book of poems “Sailing to the island of Citera”. Influenced by M. Kuzmin. Then followed collections of poems: “the Border” (1914), “Monument of glory” (1915), “Heather” (1916), “Gardens” (1921), “Lamp” (1922).
In the autumn of 1922 Ivanov went abroad on a business trip to compile a repertoire of the state theatres. Not returned to Soviet Russia, remaining in Berlin together with his wife, poet I. Odoevtseva. In 1923 they settled in France, in Paris. Several years, writes poetry, is a period of “reflection and accumulation of music.” In 1927, involved in the society “Green lamp”, developed around Merezhkovsky, as its Chairman. Reprinted in various emigre publications – “New home”, “Number”, “Circle” etc. In 1930, publishes collection of poems “Roses”, which sounds “new voice” of the poet – lyrical, simple.
In the years of exile and acts as a prose writer: a memoir “St. Petersburg winter” (1928, Paris), “Third Rome” (1929, unfinished novel). In 1938 the lyrical prose of “the Disintegration of the atom” (1938, Paris). In 1949 – 1950 – a series of critical articles.
In 1943 – 1946, he lives in Biarritz in poverty, almost poverty.
In 1953, lives in a nursing home in Hyères, in the South of France. Here Georgy Vladimirovich Ivanov and died 26 Aug 1958.
1900 — Alexander Aleksandrovich Reformatsky, Russian Soviet linguist, one of the major Russian linguists of the twentieth century.
Born in the family of a Professor of chemistry. He graduated from the historical-philological faculty of Moscow University (1923), studied at D. N. Ushakov.
Worked as a proofreader and editor with publishing houses; has taught in several universities in Moscow, including the Moscow city pedagogical Institute, Literary Institute and at Moscow state University, where he created the Laboratory of experimental phonetics.
Since 1950 — Institute of linguistics, USSR Academy of Sciences, head of the sector of structural and applied linguistics (1958-1970), where under his leadership worked I. A. Melchuk, R. M. Frumkin, V. A. Vinogradov and other prominent linguists.
Scientific heritage of A. A. reformed diverse, but relatively small, he belonged to the the type of researchers who Express the idea was more interesting than fully develop it. In the history of Russian linguistics, it remained primarily as the author vividly written and repeatedly reprinted textbook (especially popular lingvisto) and as a bright personality, energetic debater, Creator of the special creative atmosphere in which it formed many direct and indirect students A. A. reformed. The identity of A. A. reformed reflected in numerous memoirs of his students and colleagues and his wife N. I. Ilyina.
Main article A. the reformed assembled in the posthumous collection: A. A. Reformatsky. Linguistics and poetics. M., 1987.
1922 — Alexander Zinoviev, a Soviet and Russian logician, social philosopher, writer and satirist.
Born in the village Patino Chuhlomskogo district, Kostroma province, Russia (now Chukhlomskiy district of Kostroma region) the sixth child of the painter Alexander Yakovlevich men and women Appolinariy Vasilevny.
In search of a better life family of the zinovievs moved to Moscow. In the village, and later — Metropolitan school Alexander stood great abilities. In 1939 he graduated from school and entered the Moscow Institute of philosophy, literature and history. About his secret speeches of his contemporary social order, was told that he was excluded from MIFLI, then arrested. From his arrest, he escaped, and in 1940 volunteered for the Red Army, thus realizing freedom from persecution. He served in the cavalry. Participated in the great Patriotic war as tankist and then a combat pilot. Had 31 sorties, was awarded the order of the red Star and other awards and medals.
In 1946 Alexander Zinoviev entered the faculty of philosophy of Moscow State University, giving a box of chocolates for the non ban for him to enter higher education. In 1951 he graduated with honors and was left in graduate school. Zinoviev was one of the founders of the Moscow logical circle (since 1952; in the Circle was also part of B. A. Grushin, M. K. Mamardashvili, G. P. Schedrovitsky and, later, the Moscow methodological circle). In 1954 he defended his thesis on the logic of the book “Capital” by Karl Marx (thesis published in 2002 by the Institute of philosophy, RAS). In 1955 he became a fellow of the Institute of philosophy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1960 he defended his doctoral dissertation and soon received the title of Professor and head of Department of logic, Moscow state University. Wrote numerous scientific books and articles, became world famous: all his major works were soon translated into foreign languages. Nominated corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the USSR State prize. Often invited to foreign conferences, but neither one has not visited.
Zinoviev was removed from the post of head of the Department, apparently for refusing to fire two teachers, and then deprived of his professors. After that, he began to write “unscientific” works, and send them to the West. In 1976, one was made up the book “the Yawning heights”, published in Switzerland. The book is an ironic, humorous form described the social life in the Soviet Union. For ideological inconsistency rules book was deemed anti-Soviet, Zinoviev was deprived of all scientific ranks, military awards, and expelled from work. Law enforcement, he said, offered him the choice between imprisonment and departure from the country, and he chose to leave.
6 August 1978, Zinoviev and his family were expelled from the USSR in Germany. Upon arrival in Munich, Zinoviev was received by President of the University of Munich N. Lobkovice, Zinoviev was given the job of Professor of logic at the University of Munich. From 1978 to June 1999 Alexander Zinoviev and his family lived in Munich, engaged in scientific and literary work. In 1999 was nominated in the state Duma on the list of the Russian national Union, but were not registered as returned to Russia shortly before.
Died 10 may 2006 in Moscow. Buried in the Novodevichy cemetery.
1958 — David Remnick, American journalist, writer and editor of the magazine “new Yorker”.
Born in a family of secular Jews, her father was a dentist, his mother a teacher. Grew up in Hillsdale, new Jersey, in the house where there was a large library. He graduated from Princeton University in 1981.
He began his career at the Washington post in 1982, immediately after graduating from Princeton University. 6 years later, in 1988, began working as a correspondent for the Moscow newspaper. Became a Pulitzer prize in 1994 for his book “Lenin’s Tomb: the Last Days of the Soviet Empire”.
In September 1992 began collaborating with the magazine “the new Yorker” since 1998 – his editor.
Married to the reporter of the newspaper new York times (eng. The New York Times), Esther FEIN, a father of three children — Alex, Noah and Natasha. Favorite music jazz favorite movie classic and beloved furniture of Russian style. Lives in new York.
On this day died:
1618 – Walter Raleigh, an English statesman, adventurer and poet.
The date of his birth is unknown is 1552 or 1554. But we know that he was a talented, daring, brave and did not miss any opportunity for self-education. He and seventeen years participated in the religious wars in France on the side of the Huguenots, and then studied at Oxford University, and in 1575 went to London.
In those days, England was the perfect place for the strong and courageous young men, deftly wielding a sword and pen, seeking to subjugate the century.
…Elizabeth of England was a wise woman, the people she saw through. The young officer, having come with a report from rebellious Ireland, seemed to her a sensible young man, his speech and manners were the Queen’s taste. Raleigh remained at court, and soon the gentlemen of the retinue were respectfully removed his hat.
There is a legend that once, when in his presence the Queen had to go through a puddle, he threw the dirt in his expensive cloak for Elizabeth to not have dirty feet and treading on his cloak. Participated in suppressing the rebellion in Ireland, and there acquired considerable land.
Raleigh gets the wine monopoly. For wealth is honor: in 1585 in the throne room Raleigh kneels, Elizabeth hits him on the shoulder with his sword unsheathed, and he rises from the earth knight (as Francis Drake).
Raleigh was very enterprising. His interests covered many fields. He considered piracy as a kind of financial speculation. Investing in the expedition of several professional captains, he amassed a huge fortune.
In 1584 Raleigh explored the territory in America along the Roanoke river and called it Virginia in honor of the virgin Queen (now this territory in North Carolina).
After the death of the Queen’s relationship with king James I did not work out and in the end on 29 October 1618 Raleigh was executed.
Raleigh is widely revered in the United States and especially in the States of Virginia and North Carolina as one of the founders of American civilization in General. Named in his honor, the capital of North Carolina — Raleigh.
1821 — Mikhail Milonov, a Russian poet.
Born on 5 (16) March 1792, in the family of poor but well-educated landowner, Mason.
In 1803 he entered the Moscow University noble boarding school, from 1805 to 1809 he studied at the Moscow University. Graduating with the degree of candidate of Philology, moved to St. Petersburg, served in the Ministry of internal Affairs, the Ministry of justice.
From 1810 he was a member of Free society of lovers of literature, Sciences and arts.
In print made its debut in 1807 in the journal “dawn”. Was published in the “Herald of Europe”, and later in the St. Petersburg journals. Polanyi author of poetry, elegies, poems of the civic theme, satire. Special popularity was gained satire “To Rubelli” (1810), viewed by contemporaries as an attack against the count A. A. Arakcheev.
Only lifetime collection of Milonova “Satires, Epistles, and other minor poems” was published in 1819. It is considered the predecessor of the civic poetry of the Decembrists.
1838 — Ivan Petrovich Kotliarevsky, the Ukrainian writer.
Born in Poltava. In 1780-1789 he studied at the Poltava theological Seminary.
In 1789-1793 worked as a clerk in 1793-1796 — house teacher in a rural landlord families.
Literary activity began around 1794. Kotlyarevsky is the author of the “Aeneid” (1798, 3 parts; 1842 — the complete posthumous edition), several times reprinted under the title “Virgiliev Aeneid. In the little Russian language passed I. Kotlyarevskii”. Based on the storyline of the eponymous poem of Virgil, as well as the parody poem N. P. Osipova in Russian (where Aeneas is depicted as a Russian “daring fellow”), Kotlyarevsky in the tradition of old little Russian burlesque has created his original artwork. In the poem, the author depicted the different aspects of life in little Russian society during the second half of the XVIII century. Ethnicity and sympathy for the fate of ordinary people has led to great success of the “Aeneid” among his contemporaries.
He died in Poltava.
1889 — Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Russian philosopher, utopian, revolutionary, editor, literary critic, essayist and writer.
Born (12) July 24, 1828, in Saratov in the family priest. Primary education he received at home, and in 1842 was determined to study in Saratov theological Seminary. But the spiritual field is not attracted Nicholas, and in 1846 he entered the St. Petersburg University in the Department of General literature, faculty of philosophy.
At the University of Chernyshevsky were among the best students, but much more core subjects, he was fascinated by the socio-political issues. It was then developed Outlook of Chernyshevsky, which was influenced by the works of the classics of German philosophy, English political economy, French utopian socialism.
After graduation in 1850 Chernyshevsky several years he taught at the Saratov gymnasium, and in 1853 returned to Petersburg for the position of teacher of the Russian language of the Second cadet corps, but lasted less than a year. An excellent instructor, he was not strict enough to the pupils, and soon he had to leave the building.
From that time he entirely devoted himself to literary work. His career as a publicist began with small articles in the journals “St. Petersburg Vedomosti” and “Domestic Notes”, essays and translations. Then Chernyshevsky was invited N. Nekrasov in “Contemporary”, where he soon became one of the leaders, and his articles were mainly devoted to criticism and literary history.
In late 1857, Chernyshevsky, passing the Department of criticism to N. Dobrolubovo that he brought in the “Contemporary” two years earlier, appealed to the economic-political topics, primarily focusing on the upcoming peasant reform. In his works he criticized the liberal-aristocratic reform projects. In his “Letters with no address,” written after the reform, Nikolai Gavrilovich was accused of autocracy in the robbery of the peasants. Also in the years 1861-62 Nikolai Gavrilovich was the mastermind behind the revolutionary organization “Land and freedom”.
All this activity could not escape from the supervision of the police, and in may, 1862, Sovremennik was closed, and soon arrested himself Chernyshevsky and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul fortress, where he stayed about two years. During this time he wrote a number of novels and short stories, and his main book – the novel “What to do?” which was published in 1863.
In the spring of 1864, Chernyshevsky was convicted “in taking action to overthrow the existing order management”, deprived of all state and sentenced to seven years hard labor and exile to Siberia for permanent settlement. More than 20 years he spent in prison, Nerchinsk mines, vilyuyskaya the link, but continued his literary activities – worked on different compositions and translations.
Only in 1883, Nikolai received permission to settle in Astrakhan, and after 6 years at home, in Saratov. During these years he again took up literature and journalism, had big plans. He wrote several articles and philosophical works, memories of the DOB and Nekrasov, translated 11 volumes of “universal history” G. Weber… But too much work in my old and sick body.
Died Nikolai Chernyshevsky from a brain hemorrhage (17) 29 Oct 1889 in Saratov, where he was buried at resurrection cemetery.
1911 — Joseph Pulitzer (Joseph Pulitzer), American journalist, publisher, founder of the journalistic Pulitzer prize.
He was born 10 APR 1847 in the Hungarian town of Mako in a wealthy Jewish family. The family soon moved to Budapest, where a journalist was educated at a private school.
In her youth, Pulitzer dreamed of a military career, but for health reasons were not enrolled in the Austrian army. Then he managed to enlist in the U.S. army, but during the voyage to America he changed his mind and on arrival deserted. He still had to fight — he caught in the US after the civil war.
Time Joseph was studying the new English, working in parallel in the German newspaper published in St. Louis. In 1878 Pulitzer buys St newspaper. Louis Post-Dispatch and is actively working to transform its business model. In 1883 he buys another newspaper — The New York World.
In 1885, Pulitzer was elected to the House of representatives.
Pulitzer died on October 29, 1911, aboard private yachts in the Harbor of Charleston (South Carolina). A few years before that, he made a will, which left $2 million to Columbia University. Three-quarters of these funds went to the establishment of the graduate school of journalism, and the remaining amount award was established for American journalists, which is awarded since 1917.
1932 — Nikolay Yakovlevich Agnivtsev, Russian poet, playwright, children’s writer.
Originally from the nobility. In connection with the frequent moving of the father of the lawyer he studied at gymnasiums in Uman, Vladivostok, Moscow. After graduating from high school in Blagoveshchensk, in 1906, entered the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University, which was not finished.
Made his debut in print with a poem “Native land” in 1908 (“Spring”, No. 9). Published in the “St. Petersburg newspaper”, “Exchange news”, “the Voice of the earth”, journal, “Nickel”, “the Sun of Russia”, “Satyricon” and “New Satyricon”, “the Capital and estate”. Performed in cabaret and literary-artistic restaurant “Vienna”.
In 1917, along with Director K. A. by Mardanovym and actor F. N. By caricinum created in Petrograd theater-cabaret “Bi-BA-Bo”, then “crooked Jimmy”
He was in exile in the years 1921-1923. Upon returning to Soviet Russia collaborated in the satirical journals, wrote couplets for variety and circus, wrote a children’s book.
In the literary activities can be divided in three periods: pre-revolutionary, the exile and the period after the return of the USSR (1923).
In the first period, the main motives of poetry is exotic, erotic and description of some idealized aristocratic world.
In exile, sadly sang the pre-revolutionary world, released a collection of “Brilliant St. Petersburg” (Berlin, 1923) is his best book of elegiac poems about the pre-revolutionary aristocratic and artistic city, the capital of the Empire. This book he dedicated to the actress Alexandra Peregonets playing in the theater “crooked Jimmy”.
The last period is permeated domestic grounds. Upon returning to Soviet Russia collaborated in the satirical journals, wrote couplets for variety and circus, has published more than twenty books for children, published a book of poems 1916-1926 years “From powder to truck” (1926).
1941 — Aleksandr Nikolaevich Afinogenov, playwright and critic, author of plays of social-philosophical and moral content.
Born April 4, 1904. In 1924 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of journalism.
The first pieces are promotional in nature and is written under the influence of the aesthetic principles of propaganda. “Raspberry jam” (1926) — “the Communist melodrama with the villains-bourgeois” (Gleb Struve) does not possess artistic value. “Freak” (1928) is much more realistic and psychological development, satirically depicts the bureaucracy, protectionism, anti-Semitism.
Next play Afinogenova — “Fear” (1931); the first version was banned, the second one was a great success. Play, critically highlights the problem of the introduction of the old intelligentsia into the new system obtained in this startling actuality. “We live in a time of great fear.”
The most critical piece Afinogenov’s play “the Lie” (1933) shows that the consequences for the entire system had forced a lie grass-roots party officials; Stalin himself was a censor of this play, which was banned soon after placing. The theme of death and labor in the name of socialism in isolated, remote corner of the USSR devoted to the play “Far away” (1935). Mashen’ka (1940) — a play, which he loved Pasternak, tells about the development of humanity in man. In this play, which influence on subsequent playwrights, showed the typical drama Afinogenova signs of structure: effects of family, isolation in a small space, and sometimes an indirect dialogue, continues the tradition of Chekhov. This piece is in 1960-71 years has been played 3036 times, it shot the same film.
Afinogenov consciously opposed their traditional, psychologically-realistic drama play Vishnevsky and N. Pogodin, who called for a new type of drama, split into a number of scenes with many actors (the masses), with rejection of the image private destinies, in the name of the image of social phenomena.
1965 — Nikolai Kalinnikovich, Goji, literary critic, academician, researcher of ancient Russian and Ukrainian literature of the XVIII — early XX centuries.
He was born April 21 (3 may) 1887, Mogilev-Podolsky.
Scientific work began in 1908 in Seminary V. N. Of Perets in Kiev University, from which he graduated in 1911. The first article of Gujia printed in 1910.
From 1922 he became a Professor of the Department of history of Russian literature, Moscow state University. Subsequently the first Dean of the philological faculty of Moscow state University, head of Department of Russian oral folklore (1941-1946). Worked in higher educational institutions of Kiev, Simferopol, Moscow. Headed the Department of old Russian literature at the Institute of world literature named. A. M. Gorkiy of the USSR (1938-1947), Department of Russian literature (1945-1952) and the Department of ancient Ukrainian literature (1952-1961) in the literature Institute. T. G. Shevchenko Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
The main sphere of scientific and scientific-pedagogical activities of Hujia was the history of old Russian literature. Guzzi — author of the first textbook on the history of ancient Russian literature (Moscow, 1938) and compiler of an anthology on the literature of the XI—XVII centuries (M., 1935, supplemented and reissued repeatedly, is used in the teaching now). He owns the work on individual authors and the monuments of old Russian literature: Maxim the Greek, Serapion of Vladimir, Metropolitan Daniel, Habakkuk, the legend of Pope Gregory, the legend of Judas the traitor, and Andrew of Crete, the History of Judean war by Joseph Flavius in ancient Russian translation, Alexandria, supplication of Daniel the exile, lay, Word of the destruction of the Russian land, the Debate of the Abdomen and Death, the Conversation of the Valaam miracle workers and others.
Guzzi — author of articles and books on the works of writers of the XVIII—XIX centuries: Feofan Prokopovich, Lomonosov, Pushkin, Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Tyutchev, Bryusov, about creativity of the Ukrainian writers Shevchenko and Franko, as well as articles on poetics literature of new time. Guzi, prepared and commented on a number of texts for the jubilee edition of the complete works of Tolstoy. Some works of Guze on the history of Russian Philology, including the works of F. I. Buslaev, N. S. Tihonravova, A. N. Veselovskogo.
1981 — Georges Brassens, French poet, composer, singer-songwriter.
Born on October 22, 1921 in Sete, on the Mediterranean coast, in a simple family. Already in childhood he began to show interest in poetry. This passion encouraged one of his teachers Bonnafe Alphonse, who later became the first biographer of Brassens.
At the age of nineteen, George moved to Paris. But in March 1943 the German occupation authorities expatriot it to Germany for forced labor. However long he’s there remains: one day, when the dismissal of George deserters from labor camps.
In 1946, Georges comes into the anarchist organization. At the training camp of this organization, he sings his early songs. In this period the poet was quite actively writes songs, but has not yet decided to sing them in public. He is looking for a suitable artist to promote his work. He eventually found the artist – it was the well-known singer Patachou. Once he heard as George sings his songs with a guitar, Patachou offered him a joint public appearances.
Since the beginning of the 1950s, George actively supports the scene. From their first concerts, Georges Brassens has known a real success with the public and critics. October 16, 1953 he was the first time on a big Parisian stage in “Bobino” as a star. In the same year records of Georges out almost every year. The creative legacy of Brassens includes about 200 songs. Most of them he had written to his own lyrics.
Brassens died October 29, 1981 in the French city of Saint-Gely-du-FESC.
The events of the day:
1945 — in new York, the first sale of ballpoint pens (57 years after obtaining a patent).