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Today, November 9 in history

Today marks the Day of St. Nestor the Chronicler. Read more: here.

In this day were born:

1656 Paul Aler, a Jesuit, writer and pedagogue of the XVII—XVIII centuries.

1818 — Ivan Turgenev (pictured), Russian writer.

Born in Orel in the family of a retired Colonel. Early childhood the boy spent in the family estate Spassky-Lutovinovo. Then the parents buy a house in Moscow and move there so the kids could get a good education.

First John went to boarding school, after graduation he entered the Moscow University, the faculty of literature. However, a year later the family moved to St. Petersburg, Turgenev transferred to the University of St. Petersburg.

In 1837 Ivan Turgenev graduated with a doctorate and the following year went to Germany to continue his studies. In Berlin University he studied the history of Roman and Greek literature.

In 1841, the future writer returns to Russia and begins to create in the literary field. His first novel “Bretter” and “Three portraits” was published in 1846. Over the next 20 years, from the pen of the writer are such works as “Freeloader”, “provincial”, “Mumu”, “Lull” and others.

Most well-known novels of Turgenev “Fathers and Children”, “the noble nest”, “Rudin”, a collection of short stories “notes of a hunter”.

In the 60-ies of the 19th century he went to Germany, in Baden-Baden. The result of his work here becomes a novel is “Nov”.

Turgenev died 3 September 1883 in France. At his request his body was brought to Petersburg and buried at the Volkov cemetery. The last way the writer accompanied the many admirers of his talent.

1832 — Emile Gaboriau, French writer one of the founders of the detective genre.

Born in Saujon, in the family of a civil servant. He graduated from high school in Saumur, served in the army and then on the advice of his father into law. At the same time, Gaborik tries hand at literature.

Arriving in Paris in 1856, Emil began working as a reporter in the journal La Vérité. The first book of Emile, Gaboriau came in 1860 and was called “the Famous ballerina”, in which he described the life of the Parisian Bohemia. The book was not a success with readers, but Gaborik was not discouraged and moved on to another genre.

At this time, Saborio works as a Secretary in the Field of February, a famous author of crime stories. He and adventure books Edgar Allan PoE, Alexander Dumas, Emile had the influence and the writer chooses the path of a detective novel.

In 1866 he published his first book, Gaboriau in this genre – “the Case of the widow Lerouge”. The prototype of the hero of the novel police Lecoq was a real person – Francois Vidocq. Then was followed by other “Crime of Orcival,” “Case number 113”, “Golden gang”, which brought him popularity in the 19th century.

Gaborik, also did much to popularize the detective Comedy. The original master detectives Stevenson, Conan Doyle in his works imitated Gaborik. Pupils have outgrown their teacher, and soon the hero of Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes pushed back the Lecoq by the wayside.

1885 — Velimir Khlebnikov (real name Viktor Vladimirovich), Russian poet and prose writer.

Born in Maloderbetovskiy ulus of the Astrakhan province in the family of an ornithologist and a Forester. In childhood he received a good education at home, and often accompanied his father on trips and kept ornithological records.

After graduating from high school in 1903 Khlebnikov entered the Kazan University on the physico-mathematical faculty. Already in his student years he began to write poetry and prose. The Russo-Japanese war and the defeat of the Russian fleet in the battle of Tsushima had a great influence on Khlebnikov. Reflecting on the course of history, he attempted to find some “fundamental laws of Time”, one way or another affect the fate of humanity. At the same time he wrote a large number of poems.

In 1908, the poet moved to St. Petersburg and entered the University, which subsequently was never finished. The main reason for moving was a desire to engage seriously in the literature. In St. Petersburg, he became friendly with the poets-symbolists, attended literary evenings, was fascinated by mythology and Slavic folklore. It was then that the poet took the pseudonym – a Slavic name Velimir.

Khlebnikov debut in print took place in 1908 in the journal “Spring” had published his poem “the Temptation of a sinner.” At the same time, an acquaintance of the poet with the futurists V. Kamensky and D. Burliuk. Trying to apply the words to Slavic roots, Velimir called futurists budetlyanami, that is, messengers of the future. His poems were included in the collection “Zadok the judges” (1910), which declared itself a new literary movement.

Soon came several poetic and theoretical works of Khlebnikov — “Creation”, “Forest maid,” “the Shaman and Venus”, “Vila and the Goblin” and others. The first author’s collection Khlebnikov “Ryav!” came out in 1913, and was soon published the first volume of the collected works of the poet, “Izbornik of poetry.” At the same time, Velimir continued their calculations on the “laws of Time”, which was printed in many of his books — “Master and disciple, Time, the measure of the world” and others, and in various articles.

Khlebnikov sincerely accepted the revolution of 1917. In an effort to be the center of events, he traveled the country, worked in various Newspapers and publishing houses, wrote many works on the subject today — “Stone woman”, “Night in the trenches”, “Ladomir”, “Night before the Soviets”, “Night search”…

In 1921, Khlebnikov returned to Moscow, became a member of the official Union of poets and published in local periodicals. By the time he finished his work “Zangezi”, a genre which the author defined as verpoest. It has become one of the most important works of the poet. But the hardships and hard work undermined his health Velimir, and in the spring of 1922 he went to his sister of the province of Novgorod, hoping to relax, but soon became seriously ill.

Died Velimir Khlebnikov 28 June 1922 in the village Santalovo Novgorod province, was buried near the village Streams. In 1960 his remains were reburied at the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow. In the village of Brooks in 1986 opened the Museum of the poet.

On this day died:

1114 — Nestor, a monk of the Kiev-Pechersk monastery. According to many researchers, one of the drafters of the “tale of bygone years”.

1844 – Ivan Krylov, the famous Russian poet and fabulist.

Born (2) 13 Feb 1769 in the family of an officer, and his childhood years were spent in the Urals and in Tver. The family was constantly in need, and Krylov, as a teenager, he entered the service. In 1872 he moved to St. Petersburg and works as a clerk in the exchequer. Systematically engaged in self-education, study literature, Italian and French, mathematics.

In the years 1776-1778 Krylov created a series of Comedy “Writer in the hallway”, “crazy family”, “Pranksters”. In these comedies he ridiculed the corruption and moral emptiness of high society of the capital. Krylov’s satire caused the dissatisfaction of the Royal family, and he had to leave the province. In Petersburg, he returned only in 1806. In the period from 1812 to 1841 he served as a librarian in the Imperial public library.

As a fabulist, Krylov has declared itself in 1809, when out of print, he published his first book of fables. Fable organically intertwined with the world of Russian Proverbs and sayings. Of them in our language it’s a lot of aphorisms, eventually also turned into Proverbs.

Fable has not lost its relevance today. They have been translated into more than 50 foreign languages. Fabulist died November 9, 1844.

1918 — Guillaume Apollinaire (real name Wilhelm albert Vladimir Alexander Apollinarius Wong-Kostrovitskiy;), French poet of Italian-Polish origin (“to devote Life to love”, “Pont Mirabeau”, “Alcohol”).

Born August 26, 1880. He spent his childhood in Italy, studied in colleges Monaco, Cannes and nice, in 1899, the family settled in Paris.

As a literary alias Kostrovitskiy chose French versions of two of its names Wilhelm (Guillaume) and Apollinaris (Apollinaire; this was the name of his grandfather). In the 1910s active publicist: the chronicler in the “Mercure de France” (Mercure de France), critic in “Paris-journal” (Paris-journal); in 1912-1913 with Andre Billy edited the magazine “soiree de Paris” (Soirées de Paris), wrote about contemporary painting: “Painters-the Cubists” (Les peintres cubistes, 1913). Maintained friendly relations with artists Pablo Picasso, andré Derain, Francis Picabia, Maurice de Vlaminck and Henri Rousseau. In 1907 he met the painter Marie laurencin; to 1912 had a love affair.

One of the first collections of poetry by Apollinaire was a series of short poetic fragments “Bestiary, or the cortege of Orpheus” (Le Bestiaire ou le cortège d Orphée, 1911), where the ancient poetic form of the quatrain and techniques emblematic of the letter combined with a confessional and melancholic tone. In 1913, Apollinaire joined the best poems in the first major collection “the Spirits” (Alcools). Contemporaries sensitively responded to the innovative nature of the collection (the lack of punctuation, changes in tone, Baroque images). In 1916 he published a collection of short stories “the Murdered poet” (Le poéte assassiné), opening mystified and tragic autobiography; in 1918 there was a collection of “lyrical ideograms” “Calligramme”(Calligrammes), partly anticipating the “automatic writing” of the Surrealists, and also proclaimed in 1924, a brilliant surrealist painter Victor Brauner synthetic “Manifesto of pictoplasma”.

While at the front, 17 March 1916, Apollinaire was wounded in the head by a shell fragment in may moved craniotomy. In the autumn of 1918 Apollinaire, weakened by the operation, died from the epidemic of Spanish influenza. He was buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris.

2004 – iris Chang, American author, historian, journalist.

Born March 28, 1968 in Princeton in the family of Chinese immigrants. In 1985 she graduated from the experimental high school attached to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Later in the same school he received a bachelor’s degree in journalism.

Having also received a master’s degree from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, iris began working as a correspondent-stringer for the newspaper “new York times” in Urbana-Champaign. She collaborated with the “Chicago tribune”.

In 1997 a book was published iris Chang “the Violence in Nanjing: the Forgotten Holocaust of world war II”, which brought the author world fame. In her novel tells of the brutal mass murder of more than three hundred thousand civilians in Nanjing in December 1937, soldiers and officers of the Japanese army.

This book, the former first English-language monograph on the events of sixty years ago, contained an interview of the author with survivors. Within 10 weeks she was kept in the best seller list the new York times. For a long time the book was banned Chan for publication in Japan.

The U.S. Congress, under the influence of iris Chang and her book, adopted in 1997 a resolution urging the Japanese government to officially apologize for the Japanese army committed war crimes.

After working on the book iris Chang suffered bouts of depression, lost sleep. In 2004, she suffered a nervous breakdown, which resulted in the November 9 suicide by shooting himself with a revolver.

The book of iris Chang about the crime in Nanjing withstood 5 editions in America, translated into many languages, including Hebrew, Chinese, Korean and Japanese.