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Today, November 4, in the history of

In this day were born:

1856 – Ernest Crosby (d. 03.01.1907), American writer and social activist. Advocate of moral and ethical theories by L. N. Tolstoy in the United States, in 1894, visited Yasnaya Polyana. Article Tolstoy on William Shakespeare arose from the intended Preface to the booklet, Crosby “Shakespeare’s Attitude to the working class” (1903). The author of the satirical anti-war novel, “Captain Jinks, hero” (1902). In his poems Crosby, advocate of nonviolence, denounced the capitalist world (“Civilization”, “the Spirit of the nineteenth century”, etc.), painted in the spirit of Christian socialism of the future.

1894 – Nikolai Otsup avdievich (mind. 28.12.1958), poet, critic, memoirist and translator, known for successful organizational and publishing activities in Russia and in exile. Brother of the poet George Rajewski.

The son of the court photographer graduated from the Tsarskoselsky Lyceum, he studied at St. Petersburg University, the Sorbonne. In 1920, Otsup, Gumilev and Ivanov, Lozinsky and founded a New workshop of poets.

1922 in exile. In Paris, he edited the anthology “Numbers”, which published young writers who formed the poetic flow, which is conventionally called the “Paris school”. During the 2nd world war he joined a volunteer in the French army, was imprisoned as an anti-fascist. Fled, was captured and sent to a concentration camp. Again he arranged the escape and fought in the Italian Resistance, was honored with military awards.

For the work of his teacher Gumilyov, he was awarded his doctorate, to the end of his life he was a Professor at the Paris Ecole Normal. His two brothers were also poets. Apparently the famous photo of Lenin, Pyotr Otsup well as his cousin, although it was not mentioned.

On this day died:

1790 – Lev Alexandrovich Pushkin (born 28.2.1723), artillery Colonel, the captain of the guard, with 23.09.1763 a retired Lieutenant Colonel, the grandfather of A. S. Pushkin.

The poet wrote about him in his autobiography that his grandfather “served in the artillery, and in 1762, during the disturbance, had remained loyal to Peter III. He was imprisoned in the fortress and released two years later. Since the service had not joined and lived in Moscow and in their villages. My grandfather was a man of ardent and cruel. His first wife, nee Voeikov, died on straw encased them in a prison home for imaginary or real bond with the Frenchman, a former tutor to his sons, and of which he is very feudal hung on the black yard. His second wife, nee Chicherina fairly by him have suffered. One day he ordered her to dress and go with him somewhere to visit. My grandmother was heavily pregnant and was feeling unwell, but did not dare to refuse. Dear she began to feel the pangs. My grandfather told the coachman to stop, and she was in the carriage was resolved – almost my father. The puerpera was brought home half dead, and laid on the bed all exhausted and diamonds. All I know it’s pretty dark. My father never talked about the strangeness of his grandfather, and the old servant’s long dead now”.

1904 – Adolf Fedorovich Marx (R. 02.02.1838), Russian publisher. The founder of the publishing house (1869), and later — joint-stock companies “Partnership publishing and printing business of A. F. Marx”. Publisher of the illustrated family magazine “Niva” (1870-1918).

Of German origin. In 1859 came to St. Petersburg from Germany. Until 1865 he worked as a clerk in the German Department at the bookstore of M. O. wolf. In 1869 he published under his own name the first book. Since 1870 began to produce an illustrated family magazine “Niva”, as a free app it was sent first albums, and oleography, literary collections, and from 1891 – collected works of Russian and foreign writers.

The high artistic level of the works published in the applications, with the low price of the magazine “Niva” is the most popular Russian periodical. A wide popularity was gained also illustrated, popular scientific and cartographical editions. Publishing house “A. F. Marx” played a significant role by making known to a wide readership the best works of world literature.

After the death of Marx, his contemporary meadow wrote in the journal: “Outside “Fields” for him as if there were no joys, he didn’t want to know and fatigue and all around him was the subject of constant care about development and improvement of the magazine and related businesses. Family, family, friends and he himself were all in the background, on the ground – was a “field”. The magazine ceased to exist in 1918. In our time (in the 60s), an attempt was made to release the magazine under the same name, but it did not last long.

1912 – Pyotr Ivanovich Bartenev (b. 13.10.1829), historian, historian, literary scholar, publisher and bibliographer. He became one of the founders of the national pushkinogore, has prepared and published a “Collection of letters of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich,” according to Herzen for publication abroad a copy of the “note” of Catherine II. The main business of his life was the preparation and publication in the Moscow magazine “Russian archive”.

1919 – Sofia Andreevna Tolstaya (pictured with L. N. Thick) (R. 03.09.1844), the wife and assistant of L. N. Tolstoy. The author of the story “Whose fault? “memorial notes “My life”.

1930 – Boris Viktorovich Polyakov, (p 04.11.1930), writer. Worked as the inspector, felling trees, and studied at the Institute of law. Arriving on the Kola North, lived with his family in the stake, then moved to Murmansk. Taught in driving school DOSAAF, has collaborated with Murmansk TV, published in “the Polar truth”. The Murmansk regional drama theatre in the season of 1987 he staged “Cola” based on the novel by P. the Author of staging — Honored artist of the RSFSR E. J. Joffe; staged in Leningrad Director Yuri Chernyshev and chief Director of ITTO, G. G. Mikhailov. 12.06.1996 died in the village of Novo‑dmitriyevskiy in Krasnodar region.

1964 – Raisa Adamovna Kudasheva (R. 15.08.1878), Russian and Soviet poet, writer. The author of the song “the forest raised a Christmas tree”.

She started her working life as a governess, was a teacher for several decades worked as a librarian. Mainly wrote for children: songs, rhymes, stories and tales.

Paradox, but almost no one knows her name and titles of her works, while she is the author of lyrics the most popular Russian song, which is known by heart by virtually all. If you offer to sing a Christmas song, the first thing that comes to mind, is “In the forest tree was born”. The poem “Tree” Raisa Adamovna wrote in 1903 on the eve of the Christmas holidays, then it was published in the December issue of children’s magazine “baby”. The poem was signed with the initials A. E. was later composed the music. Its author was an Amateur composer Leonid Karlovich Bekman, PhD in natural Sciences and agronomist, the husband of the famous pianist E. A. Bekman-Shcherbina, who recorded the tune in 1906, included in their joint book “Verochkina songs.” For many years the words of the songs were considered to be either popular, or was attributed to the composer. Only in 1941 was established the authorship of Kudashevo.

Their works, she always signed any initials, because “never wanted to be famous, but not write, could not.” Glory fell upon her so suddenly that she wrote later to his friend A. I. Sitinas: “I try to buckle down and not lose heart… If a little early!”.

1973 – Vsevolod Anisimovich Kochetov (R. 04.02.1912), a writer, asked at the time, the question: “What do you want?”. The author of the novels “Gurbani” (it was a film “the Great life”, the theater was the play “the Family Zhurbin”, the composer wrote the Opera I. Dzerzhinsky), “Brothers Ershov”, “Secretary” constantly and steadily pursued in the literature the party line.

Occupying high administrative positions (head of the Leningrad Union of writers in 1953-55, chief editor of “Literary newspaper” in 1955-59, chief editor of magazine “October” in 1961-73, member of the Central auditing Commission of the CPSU Central Committee), he was actively involved in the fight against “cosmopolitans”, was the initiator of the second study of Akhmatova and Zoshchenko struggled with headed by Tvardovsky’s magazine “New world”. The most noisy and controversial success of the latest novel by Kochetova “What do you want?” released in 1969, led by the journal and became an indicator of his time. When Kochetov was appointed chief editor of “October”, was born the phrase: all logs congratulated its readers a happy New year, and the magazine “October” – with a new reptile.

The events of the day:

1838 – Frederick Stendhal began writing the novel “the Charterhouse of Parma”. After seven weeks he will complete the work.

1899 – he published the most famous book of Sigmund Freud “the Interpretation of dreams”, depriving us of restful sleep and pleasure is to look through some dream interpretation. On the cover was the year of issue 1900. It was printed only 600 copies. For the first six weeks the book has gained 123 people, and the entire edition sold only after 9 years, but its impact on the world, it is compared with the main creations of Karl Marx and Charles Darwin.

1919 – Zinaida Gippius writes in the “Black book”: “…In the ears of continuous noise. Hard. Bread – 300 R. fcnt. Nothing more to sell. Close hope all collapsed… the Bolsheviks in a continuous glee. I assure you that pitched white absolutely…”

1946 – in Paris, founded by UNESCO the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization.

1967 – “Pierre Bezukhov” – the final, fourth part of the epic by Sergei Bondarchuk “War and peace” appeared on the white screens.

1969 – the Ryazan writers organization Alexander Solzhenitsyn expelled from the Union of Soviet writers.

1972 – on the screens released film of Stanislav Rostotsky “the dawns here are quiet”, based on the eponymous book by Boris Vasilyev. The film stars Andrew Martynov, Elena Drapeko, Olga Ostroumova, Irina Dolganova, Yekaterina Markova, Irina Shevchuk, Lyudmila Zaytseva.