Today, November 30 in history

In this day were born:

1667 — Jonathan swift (pictured), an English writer.

Born in Dublin in the family of official. The father died before the birth of his son, and Jonathan was brought up by his uncle Godwin.

After school he graduated from Trinity College, University of Dublin. And two years later went to England and there serves as Secretary to the diplomat William temple, helped prepare his memoirs.

Early on, he showed literary talent swift – he began to write poetry. At temple, swift had worked until the death of the diplomat, only at the beginning of the 1690-ies briefly left his patron. During this period swift graduates from Oxford and becomes a priest.

In 1696, begins to write Proverbs “a tale of a tub and Battle of books” and the anonymous satirical pamphlets. After the death of the temple, not finding another job, becoming a Minister of the Church of St. Patrick in Dublin. And in 1702 received the degree of doctor of divinity. Two years later publishes his first story-parable, but anonymously. The book immediately enjoyed success.

In 1713 swift becomes Dean of St Patrick’s Cathedral and is actively involved in the political life of Ireland, advocating the country’s independence from England. In his work “Letters Draper” swift calls for a boycott of British goods.

The book was published anonymously, and it helped swift to avoid punishment and anger of London. Jonathan swift became the unofficial hero and leader of Ireland.

Around the same time, the writer begins to “Gulliver’s Travels”, which will be published in 1726, again under a pseudonym. Despite censorship, the book became popular and many times translated and reprinted. Nowadays, the work is considered a classic and not just portrayed.

It’s interesting that swift in “Gulliver’s Travels” invented words “midget” and yahoo. Here the author mentioned the moons of Mars, which were actually discovered only a century later.

In 1729, swift was made an honorary citizen of Dublin. In recent years swift suffered from a serious mental disorder. In 1742, after a stroke he lost his speech and partly mental ability, for which he was declared incapacitated. Three years later, on 19 October 1745, swift died.

1813 — Hermann Kurz, German writer and literary historian (d. 1873).

1817 — Theodor Mommsen, German historian, philologist and jurist, Nobel prize for literature in 1902 (d. 1903).

1835 — mark TWAIN (real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens), American writer.

Born in Florida (Missouri, USA). He was only 12 years old when his father died, leaving the family in poverty. The boy had to go apprentice in a printing office, where he worked as a typesetter for the older brother. It was there that he begins to write small articles.

For 18 years, he embarks on a journey around the country. In new York nights studying in the library, reads a lot, is outlined. Thackeray, Dickens, PoE, Shakespeare, Cervantes… Sam is very well-read for his age.

Soon his dream came true: he got a job of assistant pilot, and then became self-drive boats on the Mississippi. The outbreak of the civil war put an end to this career. Sam spent some time in the detachment of the confederates, and even received the rank of Lieutenant. Soon the team broke up, and Clemens deserted.

In 1961, along with his brother Sam is sent to the silver mines in the far West. He failed to become a millionaire in the mines, but he found himself as a writer. In 1863 appeared his first story, signed “Mark TWAIN” (this is a term meaning the level of water sufficient for the passage of a vessel). Thus was born the nickname of the writer.

Any meetings with people of different professions — sailors, loggers, miners enriched by Mark TWAIN as a writer. He began to write in the popular after the war, the genre of humorous anecdote and parody. His works became a huge success: source for them was life itself. He described the American lower classes, from which he took the images, situations, characters.

At first, readers perceive TWAIN as a comedian, not always forcing the audience to think seriously about the essence of jokes. At that time nobody knew that this writer-humorist will revolutionize American literature, and that he will reveal the reality of America, its artists, forcing them to forget about romanticism.

The most famous Mark TWAIN brought “the adventures of Tom Sawyer” “the Prince and the pauper, the adventures of Huckleberry Finn”, etc. Many of the writer’s works adapted for the big screen.

Died mark TWAIN April 21, 1910 from angina pectoris.

1913 — Victor Yuzefovich Dragunsky, Russian Soviet writer.

Born in new York, in a family of immigrants from Russia. The parents soon returned home. The family settled in Gomel. During the First world war, his father died of typhus. Soon came the stepfather, the red Commissar, but in 1920 he died. The second stepfather was the actor in the Yiddish theater Michael Rubin. With him the family has traveled all over the country, arriving in 1925 in Moscow. One day he returned home from a tour, and what happened – no one knew.

Victor had started to work. In 1930, while working, he began to attend “Literary-theatrical workshops” A. Wild, and in 1935 began performing as an actor. Subsequently, he organized and led the ensemble theatre-literary parody of “the Blue bird” (1948-1958). During the great Patriotic war was in the militia – the front did not hit the health.

1940 publishes satires and humorous stories, later collected in the book “Iron character” (1960); writes songs, SideShow, clowning, skits for variety and circus.

Since 1959, the Dragoon creates hilarious stories about Denis Korableva under the title “Deniska’s stories”. These stories brought their author a huge popularity, and has become synonymous to his name. The children enjoyed these unrestrained fun with books; reading them, they sometimes admitted that they feel “like a circus”… and adults these easy, good and funny stories brought a lot of sincere and very children’s pure joy.

However, he wrote for adults too. In 1961 came the story “He fell on the grass” on the very first days of the war, where traces Parallels with the personality of the author. The story “Today and every day” (1964) on the life of circus workers living in their special world circus.

The writer died in Moscow on 6 may 1972.

1939 — Yuri Alexandrovich Nikitin, writer.

Was born in Kharkov. Went to the far North, where he worked in forestry. Was a choker, a raftsman. Worked in exploration: Sikhote-Alin, Ussuri taiga, far East, Primorye. In 1964 he returned to Ukraine, began working in the foundry at the plant. Played sports, received the title of master of sports in Canoeing, the first few discharges, including Boxing and Sambo, athletics. Participated in the creation and work of clubs of fans of science fiction. Learned to play the violin, worked as an artist.

At the same time began to write and publish fiction stories. Was one of the participants “Molodogvardeiskaya” group of science fiction writers, later transformed into the so-called “School of Ephraim”. The first published book — a collection of fiction stories “the Man who changed the world.” For the book “the fire Worshippers” (on casters) received the highest literary award and was admitted to the Union of writers of the USSR, and in 1979 after the publication of the book “Sword of Alexander Zasyadko” (“Golden sword”) was subjected to persecution and about seven years did not participate in literary life.

After graduating from the Higher Literary courses at the literary Institute and moved to Moscow. For some time he worked as chief editor of the publishing house “Fatherland”. In the early 1990-ies with the Lily of Sericini organized the publishing of the “dragon” (“ravlyk”), which was involved in the publication of foreign fiction first, and then switched almost exclusively to the publishing of the books by Yuri Nikitin. It is currently not working, and the books are in the publishing house “tsentrpoligraf” and “Eksmo”.

Only Nikitin has released more than 60 books, and the total circulation of works it is comparable with such famous fiction writers as Vasily Golovachev Sergey Lukyanenko. But Nikitin is not only a writer: he brilliantly scored in the genre of action-Packed political Thriller (the cycle “the Russians are coming”), works in the genre of science fiction, and in the Slavic fantasy that sometimes “turns” in historical novels.

The most famous works of Yuri Nikitin — the first book in the genre of Slavic fantasy series “Three from the Woods”.

Alone in the writer’s works is the series “Strange novels”, which in turn is allocated transhumanist subloop consisting of books “transhuman”, “I live in this body”, “Passing through walls”, “I — singulair”, “Singomakers” and “2024”.

Also, they were written an autobiographical book, “I — 65”.

1947 — Antanas Ramonas, Lithuanian writer (d. 1993).

1984 – Manunichka, one of Buckminster 🙂

On this day died:

1892 — Nikolai Dmitrievich Maslov (b. 1833), writer.

1900 — Oscar Wilde (Oscar Wilde), Irish writer.

Born October 16, 1854 in Dublin. His parents were out of the ordinary, and had a significant influence on the formation of the son. Father, who is a famous ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist, a highly erudite man. Mother– the owner of social salon, the poet, is convinced that born for greatness.

He took from them a lot, inherited from his father a rare capacity for work and curiosity, mother – dreamy mind, gentility, passion for beauty and a belief in his genius.

Oscar received an excellent education, first at king’s College in Enniskillen, then at Trinity College, Dublin, and finally in 1878 he graduated from Oxford. At Oxford, Wilde created himself. He developed a crystal clear English accent, acquired the reputation of a person, shining effortlessly. Here he showed his special philosophy of art as the meaning of life and platform world.

After graduation, he moved to London, where he quickly became a part of secular life. Wilde began to “entertain” visitors for wit, brilliant speech, brilliant manners. It has become fashionable in the light, and his manner of dress caused a revolution in the style of Prim and proper British.

His early poetry reveals the influence of impressionism, they directly expressed individual experience, they are incredibly picturesque. His first poetry collection “Poems” was published in 1881, and soon Wilde went to lecture in the United States. In America, he spent a year reading the brilliant lectures in the leading universities. Briefly back in London, Wilde went to Paris. There, he met with the elite of world literature (Paul Verlaine, Emile Zola, Victor Hugo, stéphane mallarmé, Anatole France, etc.) and wins without difficulty to their liking.

Returning home, he met Constance Lloyd, falls in love and at 29 became a family man. They give birth to two sons, to whom Wilde writes stories. To life he made his living by journalism.

In 1891 he published a novel “the picture of Dorian gray”, the most famous composition by Oscar Wilde. Its success is stunning. It was followed by a series of brilliant comedic plays.

From 1895 to 1897, Oscar was serving his sentence, accused of homosexuality – apparently, it was revenge of the Marquis of Queensberry for lost influence on his son, young, handsome Alfred Douglas. Prison greatly influenced Wilde – “the worst thing is not that life breaks the heart… but that it turns a heart to stone” – will write it later…

After his release from prison he went to Paris, changed his name to Melmoth. In France, Wilde wrote the famous poem “the Ballad of Reading gaol”.

Wilde died November 30, 1900 from meningitis, following an ear infection.

In late 2007 the British newspaper “The Telegraph” found the Oscar Wilde’s most witty man in the UK. He walked around the Shakespeare and Winston Churchill.

1956 — Louis Cuba (Ludvík Kuba) (b. 1863), the Czech ethnographer, folklorist, musicologist, artist, writer.

1962 — Max Vasmer, a linguist, author of etymological dictionary of the Russian language.

1977 — Terence Mervyn the Red (Terence Mervyn Rattigan) (b. 1911), English novelist and screenwriter.

1982 — Vilem Zavada (Vilém Závada) (b. 1905), Czech poet.

1983 — Kirill Rapoport (b. 1926), writer, playwright.

2004 — Alexei Khvostenko, Russian poet of the avant-garde artist, songwriter, painter.

2004 — Pierre Berton (Pierre Francis Berton) (b. 1920), canadian writer, journalist, historian.

2009 — Milorad pavić, Serbian and Yugoslav poet, writer, historian of the Serbian literature.

Born on 15 October 1929 in Belgrade in the family of sculptor and teacher of philosophy. The childhood of Pavic had to the Nazi occupation. He studied at the school named Karageorge in Belgrade.

In the years 1949-1953 he studied at the philosophical faculty of the University of Belgrade, and later received the degree of doctor of philosophy in the field of history of literature at Zagreb University.

After graduation she worked in Newspapers, wrote a critical work, poems translated from European languages. While he taught at various universities (at the Sorbonne in Paris, in Vienna, Freiburg, Regensburg and Belgrade). His first poetry collection (“Palimpsest”) was published in 1967. In 1971 was published the following poetry collection “the moonstone” (“Moon stone”).

In addition M. pavić is the author of monographs on the history of the ancient Serbian literature and poetry of symbolism. In 1991 became part of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and arts, in addition, was a member of the “Société Européenne de Culture” and of the Serbian PEN club. In 2004 was nominated for the Nobel prize for literature.

Pavich spoke Russian, German, French and several ancient languages. He was married to Yasmine M. (Serbian writer, literary historian, and critic).

Died on 30 Nov 2009 in Belgrade on 81-m to year of life from cardiac infarction.