In this day were born:
1774 – Egor Frantsevich /George Ludwig/ Kankrin (photo) (mind. 21.09.1845), statesman, scientist, writer, General of infantry, count, an honorary member of the St. Petersburg (1824) and Paris (1844) an.
Educated in Germany, in 1797, came to Russia. In 1818 at the behest of Emperor Alexander I presented “a Note on liberation of the peasants…” with a project of gradual abolition of serfdom in over 30 years.
More than 20 years was the Minister of Finance of Russia, in 1839-43, he held a monetary reform, based on the silver coin. Supported as the Minister of science, education, technological progress. With his support, passed the first Russian industrial exhibition.
1840 – Aleksei Nikolaevich Apukhtin (mind. 29.08.1893), poet.
Born in a poor noble family with ancient roots Dating back to France. Childhood in the family estate of his father — the village Pavlodar. Worldview is close to M. Lermontov. Was very insecure, easily hurt, “poet by the grace of God”, however, had a reputation as a Joker, witty and brilliant improviser. His monologues in verse, romances, album dedications, parodies, epigrams and impromptus were included in the repertoire of fashionable recitation-reciter. Some works of Alexei Nikolaevich set to music by P. I. Tchaikovsky (“crazy Nights”, etc.), A. S. Arensky (“a Broken vase”).
In 1859 he graduated from the law School, where he became friends with P. I. Tchaikovsky. The School Apukhtin was the most brilliant student in the class and had only excellent marks in all subjects, was also one of the editors of the magazine “School messenger”. After graduation he served in the Ministry of justice (within the Department with Tchaikovsky), service not fond of, led a life of “gilded youth”; in 1862 Apukhtin, Tchaikovsky and a number of other lawyers caught in a sex scandal in the restaurant “Satan” and was “infamous for the whole city.” In 1862 he lived at the family estate in Oryol province; in 1863-1865 years was listed as a senior official for special assignments under the Governor; then in St. Petersburg there were officials of the Ministry of internal Affairs. For business needs several times traveled abroad. Already in the 1870-ies he started to have morbid obesity, which in the last ten years of his life took enormous size. The end of his life he was almost home, barely moving. Alexei Nikolaevich was buried at the Volkov cemetery in St. Petersburg.
1879 – Gregory Abramovich chuprynka (mind. 28.08.1921), Ukrainian poet.
Born November 27, 1879 in the village of Gogolev Osters’ke County Chernigov province in the Cossack-peasant family. Studied at the gymnasium, but was expelled for revolutionary activities. Several times he served his sentence in prison Lukyanivsky in Kiev and Smolensk prison, was deprived of the right of entry to Chernigov. As a poet he debuted in Russian, then switched to Ukrainian. The first poem in the Ukrainian language “My zone” published in the newspaper “Rada” in may 1907. Subsequently collaborated with the magazine “Ukrainian house”, which proclaimed the idea of revival of Ukrainian literature on a national basis, but with creative use of the latest trends in other European literatures.
1907 – Lyon Sprague de camp /de Camp Lyon Sprague/ (mind. 06.11.2000) is an American science fiction writer, one of the pioneers of the fantasy genre.
Born in new York in 1907. He graduated from the California Institute of technology. During WWII he served in the Navy, where he became acquainted with Isaac Asimov and Robert Heinlein, and other famous science fiction writers.
Among the most famous works de Kamp — a humorous fantasy about a magician Harold Shea, written in collaboration with Fletcher Pratt. Lion also, along with Lin Carter — one of the initiators megaantoshka continue the Saga of Conan, author of several books about this character, finished the drafts of Robert E. Howard.
One of the founders of modern alternative history literature (but not darkness falls).
1932 – Stanislav Y. kunjaev, Russian poet, essayist, literary critic, editor in chief of the magazine “Our contemporary” (1989).
The author of ten biographies in the series “Life of remarkable people”, together with his son Sergey was published in a series of book about the life and work of Sergei Yesenin. Author of over 20 books of poetry, prose, essays, the most famous is “Eternal companion”, “Scroll”, “Manuscript”. “Deep day”, “favorites”. The author of numerous translations of Ukrainian, Georgian, Abkhaz (including Mushni the Lasuriya, Dmitry Gulia), Kirghiz (including the Toktogul), Buryat, Lithuanian (including Eduardas Miezelaitis) poetry. Laureate of the State prize of the RSFSR. M. Gorky, winner of the literary prize “Russia true sons” (2000) as publicist for the three-volume book of memoirs “Poetry. Destiny. Russia.” Some of his works have been translated into Bulgarian, Czech and Slovak languages.
1933 – Jacques Gumbo, canadian writer.
On this day died:
1895 – Alexandre Dumas, son /Alexandre Dumas fils/ (R. 27.07.1824), the son of Alexander Dumas, the famous French playwright, member of the French Academy (from 1874).
His mother, Katrina Labe, Paris was a simple worker, from which Dumas inherited a love of neat and quiet way of life, sharply distinguishes it from a purely Bohemian nature of the father. Breaking the Association with the lowly, unassuming without curtain, Dumas legitimized his son and gave him a good education. With 18 years he started to write poems in periodicals; and in 1847 appeared his first poetic collection, “Sins of youth”; it was followed by a series of small stories, which partly reflected the influence of his father, a then and more original novels and stories.
Talent Dumas effect in full only when he turned to psychological dramas. In them he touched upon pressing issues of public and family life and solved them in my own way with courage and flair that made each of his plays public event. A series of these brilliant dramas “à thèse” (“ideological”, “biased” playbook) has opened “the Lady with camellias” (written initially in the form of the novel), first introduced on the stage in 1852, after a hard struggle of the author with the censorship, it does not allow the performance of the play as too immoral.
In “the Lady with camellias” Dumas spoke protector “of the victims, but lovely creatures” and made of his heroine, Marguerite Gauthier, the ideal of loving self-sacrifice of the woman, standing far above condemning her light. The prototype for Margarita was Marie Duplessis.
On the subject of “Ladies with camellias” created Opera Giuseppe Verdi “La Traviata”.
1916 – Emil verhaern /Emile Verhaeren/ (R. 21.5.1855), Belgian poet, a symbolist, a Fleming who wrote in French.
Verharn studied at the prestigious University of Belgium — Luganskom (faculty of law). After graduation, worked briefly as a lawyer but soon became a professional writer. The early poetry of Verhaeren refers to naturalism, however, the most important work relates to symbolism and mysticism.
The poetry of Verhaeren are mainly devoted to the agriculture of Flanders, is in her line about the native settlement on the banks of the Scheldt. Healthy rural life contrasted with the urban reality, embodies the alienation and inhumanity. During the First world war living at that time in France, the poet wrote some Patriotic poems about the tragedy of little Belgium, who became a victim of the aggressor.
In addition to poetry, verharn wrote both prose and dramatic works.
Emil verhaern died in Rouen on 27 November 1916, fell under the wheels of the train.
The poetry of Verhaeren translated into many languages, including on Russian. In Russia, the first published translations of Verhaeren (1906) belonged to Valery Bryusov. Before the October revolution on translations of Verhaeren worked, in particular, Alexander Blok, Maximilian Voloshin, Ellis. In Soviet times the most extensive and fruitful work on translations of Verhaeren did Georgy Shengeli and Vasily Fedorov. Also among the translators — Alexander Golemba, Benedikt Livshits, Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky, Sergei Shervinsky Yuri Alexandrov.
1953 – Eugene O’neill (b. 16.10.1888), American playwright, Nobel laureate 1936 “the force of the impact, the truthfulness and depth of dramatic works has reinvented the genre of tragedy”.
1972 – Yaroslav V. Smelyakov (R. 08.01.1913), Russian Soviet poet, critic, translator.
The events of the day:
1582 – 18-year-old William Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anna Hatwell.
1895 – Alfred Nobel wrote in Paris will put in the Bank in Stockholm. When a year later he died, it turned out that the inventor of dynamite earned funds established prizes for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine and physiology, literature and peacekeeping activities directed to the benefit of mankind.
1970 – Alexander Solzhenitsyn refused to go to Sweden to receive awarded the Nobel prize for literature, considering that the Soviet authorities will not allow him to return Home.
1975 – the militants of the Irish Republican army killing of a British publisher and activist right-wing Ross macwhirter.
1997 – Small Arena 6-th Booker in the history of Russian literature is awarded to Anatoly Atascosa (novel Cage).
2003 – the Ministry of education intends to prohibit the edition of the textbook “the domestic history of the twentieth century” for high school. Dissatisfaction with the Ministry of education called homework about the time of the reign of President Putin.