In this day were born:
1821 — Fyodor Dostoyevsky (pictured), Russian writer.
Born in Moscow in the family of a military physician. 15 years after the death of his mother and his brother Michael is forced to move to Saint Petersburg.
After completion of education in the Board, Fedor goes to Engineering school. During his studies serfs killed his father Dostoevsky. Subsequently, he renounces the inheritance rights to the estate. In 1843, entered the service enclosure at the St. Petersburg engineering team.
During this period, the writer translates into Russian language of Balzac and wrote his first novel “Poor people”, which immediately drew the attention of critics and the public.
In 1849 Dostoevsky sentenced to death in the case Petrashevsky. However, the penalty in the last moment was commuted to penal servitude. These impressions formed the basis of one of the monologues of Prince Myshkin, the famous novel “the Idiot”.
Prison Dostoevsky was serving in Omsk, and four years later went to serve as a private in Semipalatinsk fortress. Here he met his future wife, Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva.
Two years after the marriage the couple returned to St. Petersburg. Fedor, along with his brother founded the magazine “Time”, which was banned three years later. In 1860-e years, Dostoevsky wrote the works of “house of the dead”, “the insulted and injured”, “Winter notes on summer impressions”.
A penchant for gambling soon impoverishes the writer, and in 1864 die immediately and wife, and brother.
His famous “Crime and punishment” Dostoevsky creates in this difficult period. In order to meet the limited time the publisher, the writer takes care stenographer Anna Grigorievna Snitkina, which later becomes his second wife.
From 1872 until his death, Dostoevsky lived in the town of Staraya Russa. Here he wrote his immortal works “Demons”, “Karamazov Brothers”. Many of his creations in our ekranizirovana Russian and foreign Directors.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky died in 1881 in St. Petersburg.
1889 – Ostap Vyshnya (real name Pavel Mikhailovich Gubenko), a Soviet Ukrainian writer, humorist and satirist.
Born in the village of Grun, now Sumy region in a large peasant family.
Paul graduated from elementary, then a two-year school in Zin’kiv and continued his studies at the military medical school in Kiev, and finished it in 1907. At first he worked as a paramedic in the army, and eventually – in the surgical Department of the hospital of South-Western Railways.
In 1917, passing external exams graduation school, Gubenko entered the Kiev University. But soon he left teaching and devoted himself to journalistic and literary work.
The first printed work by a young writer – “Denikin’s Democratic reforms” was released on 2 November 1919 in the newspaper “Narodnaya Volya”. The article was published under the pseudonym “P. Grunsky”.
Alias “Ostap Vyshnya” first appeared on July 22, 1921 in the “Peasant’s truth” under the article “Eccentric, honest to God!”.
In the process inspired work was born and developed created Ostap Cherry new genre – a smile – a kind of humorous pieces and satirical piece. Humorous stories Cherries were a great success especially for the Ukrainian reader.
During the great Patriotic war satire writer branded an enemy, instilled in the Soviet people’s courage, faith in victory (a collection of “Antiaircraft gun”, etc.).
Generally works Cherry was directed against the alien and hostile influences, against any violence. Many of the images and apt expressions Ostap came into wide use, and works translated into many languages of the USSR.
Died Ostap cherry 28 September 1956 in Kyiv.
1891 – Lilya Yuryevna Brik, Russian writer, lover of Vladimir Mayakovsky.
Born in Moscow in a family lawyer. Lily brilliantly graduated from high school in 1909 he entered the mathematics courses Gernie. Since 1911 he studied sculpting at the Munich Studio Sogrel.
At the end of 1915 Lily was fascinated by ballet. Arranging in one room, the machine began to take lessons from a ballerina Alexandra Dorinski.
Part-time acquaintance of Lily Brik, Vladimir Mayakovsky began in 1913: were both a lot about each other heard, since Vladimir was at that time caring for her younger sister Lily – Elsa. At the end of July 1915, Elsa was introduced to the sister of Mayakovsky.
In may-June 1918 Lily and Mayakovsky had starred in the film with the strange name (the scenario Mayakovsky) “Chained by film”. She played a ballerina, he – the artist. In this period the poet gave Leela a ring with ANY letters in the circle to be able to continuously read their “lululululul…”. I must say that by the time Lily was already married to Osip Brik. But the opinion of the family and environment a little worried about Lily, who hated the conventions and believed that it is possible to love anyone, anywhere and anytime, but without us!
Since then, both in her apartment in Petrograd appeared Mayakovsky, fate gave her meetings with outstanding writers of the 20th century: Boris Pasternak, Viktor Shklovsky, Velimir Khlebnikov, David Burliuk, Vasily Kamensky, Nikolai Aseev and to a certain point Bitter. In many ways, this contributed to the irresistible charm outstanding personality Lily.
People have always had many. Brik and Mayakovsky drew people to him. Their house was a kind of analogue of past literary salons, “house of Brik and Mayakovsky”. The hostess was Lily, and the main figure — Mayakovsky.
…14 April 1930, Mayakovsky committed suicide. Lilya Brik was very upset by the tragedy that has achieved wide posthumous recognition of the poet, by writing a letter to Stalin, was organized by the Museum of Mayakovsky.
She had twice been married, but about the great poet remembered until the end of days. At 86 years old she fell and broke her hip than were doomed to immobility. 4 August 1978, Lily Yu committed suicide at his dacha in Peredelkino, taking a lethal dose of sleeping pills.
1920 — James bond, the fictional British spy. Read more: here.
1922 — Kurt Vonnegut, American writer.
He was born in Indianapolis. In memory of the childhood years of writer often makes his native city the place of action of his novels.
He began writing in his student years when studying at new York’s Cornell University, led a column in the campus newspaper Cornell Daily Sun. However, he studied not of the writer, and chemist. After graduation, he volunteered for the front in the American army (it was the 2nd world war).
At the front, Vonnegut was in Dresden in captivity and was released in the year of the Soviet Army. Being in captivity has left a huge imprint on the future writer.
After the war, Kurt continues teaching, this time studying anthropology in graduate school at the University of Chicago. However, his thesis fails and gets a master’s degree in anthropology, only 24 years later for his novel “cat’s Cradle”.
Leaves and journalism: preparing police chronicle for local news Bureau. As recognized by the writer, just the work of a reporter helped him find his style and development as a writer.
Before the beginning of the literary activity worked in the PR Department of the Corporation General Electric.
After began writing in the genre of science fiction. His first novel, “Utopia 14”, was released in 1952. Until 1959, when he published the novel “Sirens of Titan”, Vonnegut managed to print dozens of short stories, to work as a teacher in the school for mentally retarded children, was a sales representative of the concern “Saab” etc., and Then was published four novels, and it ended with a tumultuous decade with the release in 1969 of the best Vonnegut novel “Slaughterhouse five.”
In the 1970s-1980s Vonnegut continues to write and publish. Go the novels “Breakfast of Champions” (1973), “Jailbird” (1979), “Small mistake” (1982), “Galapagos”(1985), “Mother of Darkness” (1986), “Bluebeard” (1987), “hocus pocus” (1990). In 1997 published novel, “Time Quake,” which becomes subitem in American literature of the last decade of the 20th century.
Kurt Vonnegut also wrote a series of comics “Vault of horror” which was later filmed TV series “Tales from the crypt”.
It is interesting that Kurt Vonnegut was one of the few American writers, so popular in the USSR during the cold war. His books were translated and widely published in our country. The writer twice visited the Soviet Union for meetings with readers.
The main paradox of Vonnegut’s artistic method is that of the crisis, the tragic moments of human life, he says with a laugh. “The wildest jokes grow out of the deep frustration and desperate fears,” said the writer.
Kurt Vonnegut died on 11 April 2007 from a traumatic brain injury received in an accidental fall a few days before.
On this day died:
1885 — Dmitry ye Min (b. 1819), poet and physician.
1888 – Alfred Edmund Brehm, the famous scientist-zoologist, author of popular science books “Life of animals”.
Born February 2, 1829, in the city of Renthendorf. Already in the childhood the father gradually began to involve the son in his activities, helping him in the first Zoological observations.
Before joining the Alfred University made the first journey across Africa (Eastern Sudan, Nubia, Egypt). Then he returned to Europe and studied science in Vienna and Jena. After graduation, made several trips to Spain, Norway, Lapland, and Abyssinia.
In 1863 Brehm became Director of the Hamburg Zoological garden, and in 1867 moved to Berlin and founded the Berlin aquarium. In 1877 he made a trip to Western Siberia, and Eastern Turkistan in 1878 – in the region of the middle Danube.
Braine was the author of a large number of scientific and popular scientific works, which differ in a fascinating presentation of scientific material, thoroughness of content. Still popular: “Life of animals”, “Life of birds”, “Journey to Western Siberia”, “Forest animals”. In Russian language they were published in the journal “Nature and hunting” in 1881. These books are liked by both adults and children.
Brehm died 11 Nov 1884 in Renthendorf. In the XX century “Life of animals” has been reprinted in overtime (“A. E. Bremo”) reflecting the state of the science at the time of publication, however at the maximum possible preservation of the author’s popular scientific style, plan, presentation, drawings.
1961 — Vasily Kamensky, a poet-futurist.
Born 5 (17) April 1884 in the family of the caretaker of the gold mines of count Shuvalov. Childhood the future poet passed in the village of Borovskoe in the Urals; in five years he lost his parents and was raised in a family aunt, whose husband was managing a towing shipping company in Perm. Early years were “among the steamers, barges, rafts… Kluchnikov, sailors, captain.”
To earn a living I had before: in 1900 Kamensky left school and from 1902 to 1906 he worked as a clerk in the accounting Department of the railway. In 1904, began working in the newspaper “Perm Krai”, publishing poems and notes. In the newspaper he met with local Marxists, determined to further his left-wing beliefs. At the same time, Kamensky was fascinated by the theatre, became an actor and traveled with the troupe across Russia. Returning to the Urals, conducted propaganda work in railway workshops and led the strike Committee, for which he was jailed. Freed, he travelled to Istanbul and Tehran (impressions of the Middle East would later be reflected in his work).
In 1906 he arrived in Moscow. In 1907 he passed the examination for matriculation in St. Petersburg, he studied agronomy, and since 1908 he worked as a Deputy editor in the magazine “Spring”, where he met with prominent Metropolitan poets and writers, and futurists (Burlyuk, who studied painting, Khlebnikov, and others).
In 1911 he went abroad, to Berlin and Paris, for training in piloting, on the way back visited London and Vienna, then for a short time was an Aviator, one of the first in the country to master the monoplane “blériot XI”. For some time he lived in his own estate near London, but in 1913 he moved to Moscow, where he joined the group of “Cubists-futurists”, and actively participated in its activities (in particular, the publication of the poetry collection “Zadok the judges”). At this time, Kamensky together with Burlyuk and Mayakovsky traveled extensively around the country with performances in the future often gave readings of his futuristic works.
Hobby aircraft not put an end to literary activity Kamensky, in 1914, he published his poetry collection “tango with cows”, in 1915 — the poem “Stenka Razin” (1919 reworked into a play in 1928 in the novel).
The October revolution Kamensky received with delight, like most other futurists. Led multrabota in the red army. Member of the group “LEF”.
In the 1930s, wrote his memoirs.
April 19, 1948 the poet struck a stroke, the last years of his life he spent paralyzed.
1972 — Vera Mikhaylovna Inber, Soviet Russian poet and prose writer.
Born June 28 (July 10), 1890, in Odessa. Her father Moses (Monya) Filipovic (Lipovich) Spencer was the owner of the printing house and one of the leaders of the scientific publishing house “Mathesis” (1904-1925). Her mother, Fanny Solomonovna Spencer (Bronstein), cousin of L. D. Trotsky, was a teacher of Russian language and head of the Jewish government girl’s school.
In their family lived and grew up Leon Trotsky at the time of his studies in Odessa, in the years 1889-1895.
Vera Inber short time, visited the historical-philological faculty of the Odessa Higher women’s courses. The first publication appeared in the Newspapers of Odessa in 1910 (“lady of Seville”).
Together with her first husband, Nathan Inbeam, lived in Paris and Switzerland during the four years 1910-1914. In Paris, she has published at his own expense the first collection of poems.
In 1914 he moved to Moscow. In the early twenties, like many other poets, he belonged to the literary group, in her case, the “Literary center of constructivists”. In 1920-e years worked as a journalist, wrote fiction and essays, traveling the country and abroad (in the years 1924-1926 as a correspondent lived in Paris, Brussels and Berlin).
For the second time since 1920, was married to the famous electrochimica Professor A. N. Frumkin. In 1927 he took part in the collective novel “the Great fires”, published in the magazine “Ogonek”.
After spending three years in the besieged Leningrad during the great Patriotic war, Inber portrayed the life and struggle of the people in poems and prose. During the siege in 1943 became a member of the CPSU(b). Third, her husband, Professor of medicine Ilya Davidovich Strashun, worked at the 1st Medical Institute in the besieged city.
After the war, Vera Inber was awarded the Stalin prize in 1946 for the siege of the poem “pulkovskiy Meridian”.
He translated the poetic works of T. Shevchenko and M. F. Rylsky with Ukrainian and foreign poets such as P. Eluard, S. Petofi, J. Rainis, and others.
V. M. Inber died 11 November 1972. Buried at the Vvedenskoye cemetery in Moscow.
1990 — Yiannis Ritsos (Yannis Ritsos, Γιάννης Ρίτσος) (b. 1909), Greek poet, laureate of the Lenin prize, 1977.
2000: Valery Agranovsky (born 1929), journalist, writer, playwright.