In this day were born:
1483 – Martin Luther (pictured), the founder of Protestant denominations “Lutheran”, translator of the Bible into German.
Born in Eisleben (Saxony) in the family of a former miner who became one of the owners of smelters and copper developments.
After graduating in 1505 at Erfurt University with a master’s degree, Luther entered the Augustinian monastery in Erfurt. In 1508 he began to lecture at Wittenberg University in 1512 doctor of theology).
The setting of the rise of social movements in Germany and criticism of the Catholic Church, Martin Luther made theses against indulgences. These theses contained the main points of his new religious doctrine, who denied the basic tenets and the whole system of the Catholic Church.
The theses of Martin Luther were perceived oppositional segments of the population as a signal to revolt against the Catholic Church and ostashevskoe its social system, and the reform movement went beyond the boundaries that are put to him Martin. Drawing on social movement in Germany, Luther refused to appear at the ecclesiastical court in Rome and at the Leipzig disputation with the Catholic theologians in 1519 openly stated that largely considers the correct position put forward by the Czech reformer Jan HUS.
In 1520 Luther publicly burnt in the courtyard of Wittenberg University’s papal bull of excommunication from his Church. In 1520 or 1521 when the interests of different joined the reformation classes began to dissociate, Martin Luther began to move away from the initially occupied them with radical positions, adding that Christian freedom should be understood only in the sense of spiritual freedom, with which bodily freedom (including serfdom) is quite compatible.
In the history of the German social thought Martin Luther entered as a man of culture – as a reformer of education, language, music. Of great importance was made by Luther’s German translation of the Bible (1522-1542), in which he was able to adopt rules obschenemetskoe national language.
Died on 18 February 1546 in Eisleben, Saxony.
1623 – Ninon de l’enclos, writer and hostess of a literary salon, the famous courtesan.
Born in Paris into a family tirenskogo nobleman. The date of her birth is sometimes indicated eight years earlier. But does it really matter?
Diminutive of the name “Ninon” gave her in childhood, father, follower of the philosophy of Epicurus. She early became an orphan and went to the monastery. However, after a year, Ninon left him. I must say that Ninon left a legacy, which she managed well to dispose of each year 10,000 livres of rent.
She returned to Paris, where it soon became a popular figure in the secular salons of that time. And its own living room became the center of disputes about literature and the creation of new works. In the early 1630’s it was Ninon de l’enclos encouraged the young molière – it was in her salon he first read his “Tartuffe,” and Ninon, he brought in “the Misanthrope” in the image of Celimene.
In this lifestyle, as well as free-thinking Ninon led to the fact that the libel of Madame de Grammont and the command of the Regent Anne of Austria she was placed in the convent of Madonette. Some time later, however, the prisoner was visited by Christina, former Queen of Sweden, who succeeded Mazarin liberation Ninon.
As revenge Ninon de l’enclos was writing works which defended its stance: dignified life without any religion. She was well educated, knew Italian and Spanish, is free to Orient themselves in classical literature, played the lute and harpsichord. In addition, Ninon was also well known for its witty sayings.
It is known that she wrote his biography, omitting, however, about their love stories: “Here is my portrait, but only to the waist”.
Ninon died on 17 Oct 1706 at 83 year of life, a very rich woman. To old age she retained the beauty, and even in the eighth decade was the heroine of many novels and the reason for the duel between rivals, fighting for her attention…
1730 — Oliver goldsmith, Anglo-Irish writer.
1759 — Johann Friedrich Schiller, German poet and playwright.
Born in the city of Sochi in the family of a regimental medical assistant. The family was poor and lived very poorly. On a brilliant future the boy could hardly count. In childhood, Schiller wanted to become a priest, but it drew the attention of the Duke of Württemberg, Schiller had the opportunity to study in an elite military Academy. He studied there law and medicine, but his heart lay to the literature during his school years, Schiller wrote his first works.
In 1770, Friedrich Schiller left the Academy and became a military doctor. The profession gave him joy, and he secretly wrote his first play “the Robbers”. In 1799, Schiller moved to Weimar, where he bought a house. At this time he wrote the play “don Carlos” and the drama “Maria Stuart”. In 1780 he was appointed regimental physician in Stuttgart.
After performances of the play “the Robbers” at Mannheim on 13 January 1782, Schiller was imprisoned in the brig, and he was forbidden to publish. He fled Stuttgart in 1783. In the same year, from his pen came the play “Intrigue and love”, which was subsequently delivered in the same Mannheim theatre.
In July 1787 Schiller left Dresden, where he visited one of his admirers, and before 1789 he lived in Weimar. In 1789 he was appointed Professor of history and philosophy at the University of Jena, and in 1790 he married Charlotte von Lengefeld. In this marriage they had two sons and two daughters.
He returned to Weimar in 1799 and began to publish on the money patrons several literary magazines. Becoming a close friend of Goethe, Schiller, together with him founded the Weimar theater, which became the leading theater in Germany. The poet remained in Weimar until his death on may 9, 1805, he died from tuberculosis at the age of 45 years.
1862 — Maironis, a Lithuanian poet (d. 1932).
1867 — Nicholas D. Teleshov, writer and memoirist.
1887 — Arnold Zweig, German writer.
1894 — George Ivanov, Russian poet (1922-in emigration).
1949, Alexander Popov, writer.
1969 – Igor Sorin, poet, musician, artist.
Was born in Moscow. In the childhood Igor, having a big contest, was selected for the role of Tom Sawyer, but before the start of filming, the Director Nikita Mikhalkov asked the crew to take the other boy – Fyodor Stukov.
The boy is close to heart have accepted this situation and in desperation jumped from the second floor. The jump ended happily, and administrators, fearing such a reaction of a hurt child, offered him another small role in the film – one of the boys that he played.
In 1988 Igor Sorin enrolled at the State school of Gnesin at the Department of musical Comedy in the class of Director A. Kanaevskoe. But in the third year he interrupted his studies and began touring with the Warsaw dramatic theatre in the musical “Metro” in Europe and in new York on Broadway. The American public did not accept musical, artists are advised to learn more. But the entire troupe to study in new York suggested it was only Igor Sorin. For several reasons, Sorin abandoned their studies.
Next, the Sorin tried himself in different genres, but didn’t find any creative satisfaction. From 1995 to 1997 Igor was a soloist of the popular group “Ivanushki International”. Despite the wide popularity of the band, Igor decided to part with the “Simons”.
September 1, 1998, early in the morning Igor Sorin fell from the balcony of the Studio “Space Production” in Moscow, where he worked on recording a solo album. September 4, 1998, he died from his injuries.
On this day died:
1842 — Aleksey Vasilyevich Koltsov, Russian poet.
He was born October 15, 1809 in Voronezh in the family of a merchant-prasol. In 1818 Alexei received in the Voronezh district school, but two years later leave school to help his father – he surpasses and sells cattle.
His first poem was written in 1825. It was called “Three visions”, but later Alex destroyed it.
The first significant appearance of his work in print occurred in 1831, when Stankevich, Moscow poet with whom the audience met in 1830, published his poems with a short Preface in the “Literary Gazette”.
In 1835 he published the first collection of poems of Koltsov. Traveling on business of the father, Koltsov met with different people – with Belinsky, who had a big influence on him, as well as with Zhukovsky, Vyazemsky, Vladimir Odoyevski and Pushkin. Pushkin in his journal “Sovremennik” published Koltsov’s poem, “Harvest.”
The trip helped Koltsov to collect folklore. Its lyrics sang of simple peasants, their work and their lives. Many of the poems are the songs of the music of M. A. Balakirev, A. S. Dargomyzhsky, M. P. Musorgsky, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov.
1863 — Gavriil Stepanovich Batenkov, Decembrist, philosopher, poet and critic. During the Patriotic war of 1812.
Born in the family of a Russian officer in Tobolsk (March 25) April 5, 1793. From birth did not differ good health, but had received military training in the 2nd cadet corps in St. Petersburg. Participating in the military campaign of 1813-1815, showed himself a brave officer, was wounded but taken prisoner at Montmiral.
In 1816 he was forced to resign. Later entered the service of the office of railroads, but his quarrelsome character was appointed Governor of the tenth district of the railroads in Siberia. Gavriil wanted to constantly draw attention to themselves, resulting in Tomsk took part in the organization of the Masonic Lodge “Great Luminaries”, and his notes formed the basis of the “Siberian Agency”.
The Governor-General Mikhail Speransky was appointed Gavriil Batenkov clerk of the Siberian Committee. In 1823, followed by the appointment of a member of the military settlements. At the end of 1825 Batenkov resigned, and she was accepted unconditionally. This embittered Gabriel Stepanovich and pushed for rapprochement with the leaders of the Decembrist Northern society.
Batenkov part in the uprising of December 14, ambiguous. On the one hand, he was not warned about the uprising and did not participate in it, on the other, they considered themselves the main figure of the movement. For this he was sentenced to life in prison, which the Emperor Nicholas I replaced twenty years.
After serving his conclusion, in 1846 Gavriil was sent to exile in Tomsk. He loved to appear in public, remained very active, but the politicians tried not to touch. In the European part of Russia Gavriil Stepanovich Batenkov returned in 1856, traveled a lot, visited both capitals. He died in 1863.
1891 — Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854), French poet, one of the founders of symbolism (“the Drunken boat”, “Through hell”, “Enlightenment”).
2001 — Ken Elton Kesey, American author (“one Flew over the cuckoo’s nest”).
Born on September 17, 1935 the son of the owner of the Creamery in the small town of La Honda, Colorado. Raised in a very devout and respectable atmosphere that did not prevent him, however, to run away from home after high school. Together with him the house left his classmate, faye Haxby, who became the companion of the writer.
In 1957 Kesey graduating from the faculty of journalism in Oregon. At the University he became interested in literature, receives National scholarship Woodrow Wilson and entered on the courses creative writing at Stanford University.
In 1959, to earn a little money, Kesey arranged an assistant psychiatrist and voluntarily participates in testing of LSD, mescaline and other psychedelic substances. Experience with psychoactive substances have been used when Kesey writing “one Flew over the cuckoo’s nest” (eng. One flew over the cuckoo’s nest). The novel was a huge success with critics and readers.
In 1964 he organized hippovskuyu commune, which he called “the Merry Pranksters”. In the same year, Kesey published his second novel “Sometimes a great folly”, after which he was invited to new York, where he goes with all of your friends. This journey Jean Baudrillard (writer and historian of the 20th century) called “the strangest journey in human history, after a campaign for the Golden fleece of the Argonauts and the forty-year wanderings of Moses in the wilderness.”
When LSD was declared in USA outside the law, “the Merry Pranksters” went to Mexico. When the group was over drugs and money, they had to return to the US, where Kesey was immediately arrested for 5 months for possession of marijuana (About this episode in the life of the group Kesey tells the story in detail as part of the “Garage sale” – screenplay “beyond the border”)
After the release of Kesey had changed his lifestyle after returning to Oregon, he took up farming and began the family, though not to stop writing.
Only in 1995 the “Merry Pranksters” going again, and in 1997, Kesey appeared with them in public in recent times.
Participation in the testing of drugs, violent youth could not affect the health of the writer – in the last years of his life he was seriously ill: diabetes, liver cancer, stroke.
Died Ken Kesey 10 November 2001 at Sacred Heart Hospital in Eugene, Oregon, at the age of 66 years.
2006 — Jack Williamson (born 1908), a classic of American and world science fiction.
The events of the day:
1866 – on the eve of his 45th birthday , Fyodor Dostoevsky finished dictating to the stenographer Anna Snitkina the novel “Player”.
The writing of the novel “the gambler” has a long prehistory. In 1863, Fyodor Dostoevsky came to rest in Baden-Baden. There he for several days he lost not only all their money but the cash of his girlfriend Pauline Suslova.
Dostoevsky was threatened with debtor’s prison, so in summer 1866, he first had to sign a bonded contract with the publisher Fedor Stellovsky about selling that for 3000 rubles the rights to publish the complete three-volume collection of his works and the new novel, which was required to submit by November 14.
To speed friends advised the writer to use the free help of the best student of the St. Petersburg school of shorthand, of his fans – Anna Snitkina.
On the eve of his 45th birthday, November 10, 1866, Fyodor Dostoevsky finished dictating 20-year-old stenographer Anna Snitkina the novel “the gambler” started at 8 PM on 16 October, only a few weeks before.
On 13 November he took the manuscript Stethoscope, and on 20 November proposed to Anna’s hand and heart.
1910 – from his home in Yasnaya Polyana left 82-year-old Leo Tolstoy.
(29 Oct) 10 Nov 1910 5 o’clock in the morning from his home in Yasnaya Polyana left 82-year-old Leo Tolstoy.
On his Desk left a letter for Sophia Andreyevna: “check Out my upset you. Sorry about this, but understand and believe that I could not do otherwise. My situation in the house became unbearable. Besides all the bad, I can’t live in those conditions of luxury in which I lived, and do what old people usually do: leaving worldly life to live in solitude and quiet of the last days of his life.”
His last journey he began at the station Kozlova Zaseka. On the way, he fell ill with pneumonia and was forced to make a stop at a small station Astapovo (now Leo Tolstoy, Lipetsk region), where (7) 20 Nov and died.
1933 — Ivan Bunin was awarded the Nobel prize in literature “for the strict artistry with which he develops the traditions of Russian classical prose”.
In 1922, the wife of Ivan Vera Nikolaevna Muromtseva wrote in her diary that Romain Rolland put the candidacy of Bunin the Nobel prize. Since then Ivan lived with the hope that someday it will be marked with this award.
November 10, 1933 all the Newspapers of Paris came out with huge headlines: “Bunin – the Nobel laureate”. Every Russian in Paris, not even read Bunin, took it as a personal holiday. For the best, most talented turned out to be a compatriot! In the Paris pubs and restaurants in the evening was Russian, sometimes to the last penny drinking was one of them.
On the day of the award, on 9 November, Ivan Bunin in “cinema” looked “cheerful nonsense” – “Baby”. Suddenly the darkness of the hall cut through a narrow beam flashlight. It was looking for Bunin. He was summoned by phone from Stockholm.
“And immediately cut off all my former life. I go home fairly quickly, but without feeling anything but regret that it was not possible to watch a movie. But no. Not to be trusted: the whole house is lit with the lights. And my heart shrinks a sort of sadness… a turning point in my life,” recalled I. A. Bunin.
Exciting days in Sweden. In the concert hall in the presence of the king, after a report writer, a member of the Swedish Academy Peter Hellstrema about creativity Bunin, he was handed a folder with the Nobel diploma, medal and cheque for 715 thousand French francs.
Returning to France, Bunin feels rich and did not spare the money, handing out “benefits” to immigrants who contribute funds to support various societies. Finally, on the advice of well-wishers, is investing the remaining amount in the “win-win” and left with nothing.
Each Bunin, poet and prose writer Zinaida Shakhovskaya in the book of memoirs “Reflection” notice:
“With the ability and a modicum of practicality of the award should be enough until the end. But Bunin has not bought any apartments or villas…”
In contrast to M. Gorky, A. I. Kuprin, A. N. Tolstoy, Ivan did not return to Russia, despite the exhortations of Moscow “messengers”. He never came Home never even.