In this day were born:
1813 — Nikolay Platonovich Ogarev (pictured), poet, essayist, Russian revolutionary.
Born in St. Petersburg. He studied at Moscow University, was one of the organizers of the students ‘ club of political orientation, and in 1834 was exiled to Penza province.
From 1840 to 1846, the years spent abroad, he attended a course of lectures in the University of Berlin. In 1846 he settled in his estate in Penza, where he married N.. Tuckaway.
In 1850 arrested but was soon released. In 1856 Ogarev emigrated to the UK and lived in London. Together with Herzen, who was his close friend, led the Free Russian printing house. Nikolai Platonovich was one of the initiators and co-editor of the weekly newspaper “the Bell”. He developed a socio-economic program of the abolition of serfdom through the organization of peasant revolution and developed a theory of “Russian socialism” put forward by Herzen.
In socialist views Ogarev the important role played by populist tendencies. He participated in the creation of a revolutionary organization “Land and freedom” (1860-1861).
Peru Ogarev owns a number of works of romantic orientation – he is the author of several poems and many poems. His most famous poem is “Humor”. He wrote journalism, promoting the ideas of realism.
In 1865, Ogarev settled in Geneva in connection with the relocation from London Free Russian printing house, and in 1873, returned to London.
Ogarev died (may 31) June 12, 1877, near London, in Greenwich. Now his ashes buried at the Moscow Novodevichy cemetery.
1823 – Friedrich müller, German philologist, orientalist.
Born in Dessau (Germany), the son of the poet Wilhelm müller, the words which Franz Schubert wrote the “Beautiful Miller’s wife” and “Winter journey”. He studied at the University of Leipzig, where he studied classical languages, psychology and anthropology.
Friedrich müller turned out to be the unwitting Creator of the popular, since the second half of the 19th century, the “Aryan theory”. He coined the term “Aryan”, which replaced the cumbersome “Indo-European”. His research concerned the study of the migration of Indo-European peoples, he paved the way for pseudoscientific “Aryan theory”, which was based on the manipulation of concepts of “race” and “language”.
Muller himself was stunned by the unexpected application of his assumptions. He considered it unacceptable that the ethnologist can talk about the Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair. For him, as for the linguist, it was the greatest sin.
The concept of “Aryan” in linguistics, insisted Mueller, is absolutely inapplicable to the origin. It means language and nothing but language, and if anyone speaks of Aryan race as a whole, it means nothing, among the Aryan speech.
However, the damage opening was done. All his arguments had no effect on racists.
He died in Oxford on 28 October 1900.
1839 — Anton Purtseladze, Georgian writer, publicist, critic, sociologist, historian, poet, novelist, dramatist and economist, who left a noticeable trace in the Georgian literature of the XIX century.
1903 – Gita (Georgy) Ivanovich Gazdanov, novelist, literary critic.
1904 – Alexander Vvedensky, a poet, playwright, children’s writer.
1913 – Sergey Pavlovich Zalygin, writer, publicist.
Born in Ufa province, in the family of the seller of the bookstore. The childhood and youth of the future writer took place in difficult post-revolutionary years. After graduation in 1929 Zalygin is supplied to the Barnaul agricultural College, which ends in 1932, and briefly works as a agronomist in Khakassia.
In 1933 – 1939, studies in Omsk agricultural Institute hydrotechnical faculty, after which working in the specialty. During these years, began writing essays and short stories, publishing them in the newspaper “Omsk worker”. In 1941 he published his first collection of “Stories”.
During the war he worked as a senior technician-hydrologist at the polar station of Salekhard of the Siberian military district, then head of the hydrographic works in the Middle and Lower Ob. The material accumulated here, became the basis for the book “Northern stories”, released in 1947.
In 1948, Zalygin has defended the dissertation and for 10 years headed the Department of land reclamation in the Omsk agricultural Institute. Over the years the books were written: “this Spring” (1954), “Red clover”(1955), the novel “the Witnesses” (1956).
Alexander Tvardovsky causes him to realize that his real calling was literature. In 1962 in the magazine “New world” appears in the novel “Paths of Altai”, which was a great success. In 1964 Twardowski Zalygina publishes the story “On the Irtysh”.
In the end, Sergei Pavlovich leaves teaching and research activities, giving all the time and strength to literary work. Moved to Moscow, conducts seminars prose in the Literary Institute.
In 1967 he published the novel “Salt Pad”, in 1975 “the Commission”. As a scientist he could not pass by the theme “Man and NTR”, and in 1970 – 1980-ies she has a new range of his work: the novel “South American option” (1973), the story “the Woman and NTR”.
Peru Zalygina belong to the article about Leo Tolstoy, Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Andrei Platonov, and many others. In 1982 – 1985 he wrote the novel “After the storm”.
In 1987 was released his book “Criticism of journalism”, in 1988 – the book “Three points of being” (novel, novellas, short stories) and a collection of nonfiction essays “Position”; 1991 – “Prose. Journalism.” Since 1985 Zalygin directed the magazine “New world”.
The writer died 19 April 2004.
1924 – Nikolai Konstantinovich Starshinov, poet, translator, critic, the main themes of creativity of which was experienced by them war and Love, Nature, Motherland.
1942 – Peter Handke, Austrian writer and playwright.
1943 — Oleg Grigoryev, Russian poet and artist.
Born in 1943 in evacuation in the Vologda region. Father returning from the front has washed down, and the mother (the pharmacist) with two children moved to Leningrad. As a child he lived in the centre, near the Palace square, and later lived on Vasilevsky island near the Smolensk cemetery. From an early age was fond of drawing.
In 1961, he composed a quatrain, “I asked the electrician Petrova”, which became the famous “children’s national” poem.
In 1971 he released the first book of children’s poems and stories under the title “Jackass,” which became popular; several works from it (“Hospitality”, “Orange”) were made issues of the magazine “Yeralash”. Many of his poems were included in the St. Petersburg city folk.
His poems are aphoristic nature, irony, elements of the absurd and black humor, which it is often put on a par with harms and other oberiuts. But Grigoriev is more spontaneity, sincerity and children’s vulnerability.
In the early 1970s, was sentenced for two years imprisonment for “parasitism”, was serving a sentence at forced labor in the construction of the plant in the Vologda region. He was released on parole.
In 1981 in Moscow released his second children’s book — “Vitamin of growth”. Poems from it caused resentment among some members of the official literary circles, in particular, Sergei Mikhalkov, and Grigoriev were not admitted to the Union of Soviet writers.
In 1985, Leonid Desyatnikov wrote the one-act classic Opera for children for soloists and piano “growth Vitamin” on the eponymous poem of Oleg Grigoriev.
The next book Grigoriev, “the Talking Raven”, has emerged in the perestroika, in 1989. In the same year he received a second conviction (“for a riot and resisting the police”) with probation; many poets and writers came out in his defense. During the six months before death, was admitted to the Union of writers.
Died 30 APR 1992 in Saint-Petersburg from the perforation of gastric ulcers.
He was buried in Petersburg, at the Volkov cemetery. After his death came out a few colourful books with his works.
On this day died:
1864 — go Daukantas, a Lithuanian historian and writer-educator.
He was born 28 Oct 1793, in a peasant family. He studied in the schools of Kretinga and Zhmudskaya Kalvaria and Vilna in school. In 1816, go has entered Vilnya University, first at the Department of literature and liberal arts, then at the Department of moral and political Sciences. He studied history and ancient literature. He graduated from Vilnius University with a doctorate in 1819.
Served in Riga in the office of the Governor-General, then in Saint-Petersburg assistant metricate the Lithuanian metrics in the office of the Senate.
Already in his student years go I wrote the essay “the Deeds of ancient Lithuanians and Samogitians”. In St. Petersburg he created his major works – historical study “the Customs of ancient Lithuanians”, folklore collection of “Songs zhmudskaya”, books intended for the education of the people. He also translated Greek authors, wrote Proverbs and sayings.
Daukantas laid the Foundation for the romanticized Lithuanian national historiography and was one of the first ideologists of the Lithuanian national revival. And he first showed the role of the Catholic Church as the organizer and partner of the raids of the Teutonic knights in Lithuania.
Recent years spent in the town of Papile where and ended on 6 December 1864, in the 72nd year of life.
1882 — Anthony’s trollop (b. 1815), English writer.
1985 – Walter Gibson, American writer, journalist, editor.
He was born 12 Sep 1897. In the 1920-ies he worked as a reporter in the newspaper “Philadelphia Ledger,” was the editor of magazines “Tales of Magic and Mystery” and “Strange True Stories”. During these years he wrote and published several short stories and a number of books on Harry Houdini and other illusionists.
In the late 1930 Gibson by happy coincidence is in the office of Street and Smith. The company Director Henry Ralston instructed senior editor of the company Frank Blackwell find the author for a new quarterly magazine for the project “The Shadow”. Gibson offered to rework someone’s old manuscript, and if the text like it, he had to order the next three novels.
Because the rights to the character belonged to the company, all the texts were published under a pseudonym. Gibson suggested the pseudonym “Maxwell Grant.” He also invented what is the character itself.
In his first novels, the Shadow is a person, perfectly mastered the fantastic ability to hide in the shadows disappear, distracting attention, and take the appearance of other people. His real face and name are unknown.
Gibson quickly completed the task, when appeared on the shelves of the first issue, dated April, 1931, he had already finished the third novel. Great success of the first issue (and him second) “The Shadow” led guide Street and Smith to the idea that time should not lose. With the third issue of the magazine moved to a monthly schedule, and Gibson received a Commission to write 12 novels in a year, and since 1932 – 24 novels per year. In addition, he later did also develop scenarios for a series of comic books about the Shadow.
Walter Gibson died on 6 December 1985 on 89-m to year of life.