Today, December 5 in history

In this day were born:

1803 — Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (in the photo), Russian poet, diplomat and conservative publicist.

Born in Orel province in the family of an old noble family. Having received a decent education at home, he entered the Department of literature at Moscow University, who successfully graduated in 1821.

A big part of life Tyutchev spent in Munich, where he married the Bavarian aristocrat, Countess Bothmer. Their house was visited by many famous German poets and philosophers of the time. Tyutchev was familiar with Heine and Schelling. Poems first he personally translated into Russian, with the second led fierce philosophical disputes. Life in Germany is largely influenced the work of the Tyutchev. His philosophical lyrics are in spirit much closer to specimens of German poetry, rather than Russian.

Interesting and personal destiny Tyutchev. Officially he was married twice, and both times his wives became German aristocrat, not a word is understood in Russian. From the second his sweetheart, Ernestine, Dernburg, Tyutchev met, while still married to Eleanor Bothmer, his first wife. The wife died soon after – her husband’s betrayal and the collapse of the ship on which she sailed with the children in Turin, heavily crippled her health. Tyutchev spent the whole night at the tomb of Eleanor and in the morning his hair was all white. However, the following year he married Ernestine.

Despite this, in the life of Tyutchev was another outstanding novel – the love of Elena Alexandrovna Denisovoj. The girl was the same age as his daughter. Their relationship lasted 14 years until the death of the poet (15) July 27, 1873. From Denisovoj abdicated father, she was forced to leave the Institute and live in a rented apartment, but it didn’t seem too interested. Almost all the love poems of Tyutchev dedicated exclusively to her.

1820 — Afanasy Afanasyevich FET, Russian poet.

Born in the family of landowner Shenshin.

Name FET (more specifically, FET, it. Foeth) became for the poet, as he later recalled, “in the name of all his sufferings and sorrows”. Son Orlovsky landowner Shenshin, Afanasii Neofitosa (1775–1855) and brought them from Germany Carolina Charlotte FET, he was recorded at birth (probably for a bribe), the legitimate son of his parents, although born a month after Charlotte’s arrival in Russia and a year before their marriage. When he was 14 years old, a “bug” in the documents discovered, and he was deprived of surnames, the nobility and Russian citizenship and became a “citizen hessedarmstadt Afanasy FET” (so his father was considered to be the first husband of Charlotte, German FET; who in fact was the father Athanasius — unknown). In 1873 he officially regained the name of Shenshin, but literary works and translations continued to sign name FET (through “e”).

1835-1837 — study at the German private school of Crummer in the town of Verro (now võru city, Estonia). At this time the FET begins to write poetry, showing interest in classical Philology.

1838-1844 — study at Moscow University.

1840 — publication of poetry “Lyrical Pantheon” with the participation of Andrey Grigoriev, a friend of feta at the University.

1842 — published in the magazines “Moskvityanin” and “Domestic notes”.

1845 — recruitment in the Military order cuirassier regiment, becoming a cavalryman. In 1846 he was awarded the first officer’s rank.

1850 — the second collection feta, positive reviews in the magazines “Contemporary”, “Moskvityanin” and “Domestic notes”. The death of Mary of Kuzminichna Lazic, beloved of the poet, the memory of which is devoted to the poem “Talisman”, the poem “Old letters”, “You suffer, I suffer…”, “No, I have not changed. Deep into old age…” and many other poems.

1853 — FET transferred to a guards regiment stationed near St. Petersburg. The poet is often in St. Petersburg, then the capital. Meetings feta with Turgenev, Nekrasov, Goncharov, etc. the Convergence of editorial Board of the journal “Sovremennik”

1854 — service in the Baltic Port of, described in his memoirs, “My memories”

1856 — the third collection of feta. Editor — Turgenev

1857 — marriage of FET M. P. botkine, sister of doctor S. P. Botkin

1858 — the poet resigns guards with the rank of staff-captain, settled in Moscow

1859 — a break with the magazine “Sovremennik”

1863 — output two-volume collection of poems feta

1867 — FET elected justice of the peace for 11 years

1873 — returned to the nobility and surname Shenshin. Literary works and translations of the poet and later signed with the name of FET.

1883-1891 — the publication of four issues of the collection “Evening lights”

1892, 21 Nov — the death of feta in Moscow. According to some, his death from a heart attack was preceded by a suicide attempt. Buried in the village Kleymenovo, the family estate Sensenich.

1828 — Valentin Fedorovich Korsch, Russian journalist, essayist, literary historian.

Was born in Moscow. He studied first in Moscow, then St. Petersburg University.

The first study “Spanish drama” published in the journal “Sovremennik” (1848). In 1850 he was invited by M. N. Katkov for the position of assistant editor of the newspaper “Moscow Vedomosti”. I kept a newspaper foreign Department, and published literary reviews. In 1855 he became editor of the newspaper, which became one of the most widely read in Russia.

In 1862 he moved to St. Petersburg, and in 1863 he became lessee and editor of the newspaper “St. Petersburg Vedomosti”, which quickly gained popularity and the reputation of the liberal democratic and opposition publications. In the newspaper participated V. P. Burenin, A. V. Druzhinin, V. V. Stasov, A. S. Suvorin, M. I. Zarudny.

In 1874 the efforts of the Minister of education, D. A. Tolstoy was removed from the post editor. About two years (from 1875 until the beginning of 1877) spent abroad (Switzerland, Italy, France). Began collaborating with the magazine “Herald of Europe”. From 1877 the editor of the newspaper “Northern Herald”, published by his son E. V. Corsham. In April 1878 the newspaper was banned for publishing a letter to V. I. Zasulich. From 1881 he published the magazine “international journal”, which published translations of A. Daudet, E. Zola, Wilkie Collins, essays famous critic Stasov, the historian of Russian and foreign literature A. I. Kirpichnikov, G. M. Nikolsky.

The author reviews articles on European politics, history, literature. Translated “the Course of world history”, G. Weber (1-4, 1859-1861, with E. F. Corsham). In 1880 came the first volume was started under his editorship “the universal history of literature”, was only released during the life of the law. In 1885 he published a collection of articles and essays “Sketches”. In the last years of his life much needed. Died in Germany on June 24, 1883. Buried in the Novodevichy cemetery in Saint Petersburg.

1909 – Nikolay Pavlovich Zadornov, writer, father of the writer-satirist Mikhail Zadornov.

1923 – Vladimir Fedorovich Tendryakov, novelist.

1931 — Gregory M. Tyutyunnik, Ukrainian writer (d. 1980).

On this day died:

1814 — Evariste désiré de forges Boys, French poet.

Born on 6 Feb 1753 in Saint-Paul, island of Bourbon (now reunion).

The boys formed under the influence of Voltaire. The leading genre of the lyric Boys was Elegy. A collection of “Love poems” was published in 1778, in 1779 — a collection of “Poetic trifles”. In 1799 he wrote erocomics poem “War of the old and new gods”, which parodied the Bible. The influence of the Guys was great in France in the works of A. Chenier, A. Lamartine, etc., and also in Russia in the works of Krylov, Batiushkov, Davydov, Viazemsky, Pushkin. Pushkin has a lot of translations and imitations of the Guys in “the Lyceum” and later poems to 1824 Guys is also mentioned in “Eugene Onegin”. Wanting to praise Batiushkov, Pushkin calls the latter the “Russian Guys” and speaking of Baratynsky, expressed the hope that he will “surpass the Boys”.

1835 — August Paid (Graf von platen-Hallermund), German poet.

Born on 24 October 1796 at Ansbach, Bavaria. He studied at the cadet school in Munich, since 1810 in the Royal pages ‘ school in 1814 issued by the Lieutenant of the regiment of Bavarian life-guards. In 1815 he participated in the French campaign, stood some months in a camp under the Mannheim, in the battles did not happen. Traveled to Switzerland. In 1818 he enrolled in the University of Würzburg, he studied philosophy and Philology. In 1819 moved to Erlangen University, where he became an ardent admirer of Schelling.

He published a collection of poems in Oriental style “Gazelle” (1821), which is close to similar works Ruckert. This and her subsequent books have attracted the attention of Goethe. If poems platena way or another are in line with the romantic tradition, though different, difficult synthesized (besides they are always distinct orientation to prevailing cultural forms and styles, an ode, a sonnet, Gazelle, etc.), his satirical drama the same time clearly turned against stilted romanticism.

The coldness of fellow poets, critics and the public pushed platena to leave in 1826 in Italy. He lived in Florence, Rome, Naples, but limited funds led a life quite scarce. Wrote a lot. His new drama “the Romantic Oedipus” (1829) provoked a hostile reaction of Immerman and Heine, who dedicated to him in his “Travel pictures” sharp pages . In 1832, Pay returned to Germany to bury my father, the winter of 1832-1833 lived at Munich. In the summer of 1834 he returned to Italy in 1835-m, fleeing from cholera, moved to Sicily, where he soon died of a fever.

1870 — Alexander Dumas-father (the Marquis Alexandre Dumas Davy de La Pietri), French writer.

Born in the small town of Villiers-Cotterêts (France) on 24 July 1802. His family was poor, but had good connections, which helped Alexander to get a clerical position at the Palais-Royal (Paris).

In July 1830 the July revolution Charles X was deposed and the throne the Duke of Orleans, under whom he worked, the young Alexander. Dumas took an active part in the Commission of the coup and the post-revolutionary public life.

In 1832, as a result at the funeral of General LeMarc riots Dumas fell into disgrace, he was threatened with arrest. Alexander had some time to move to Switzerland, where he worked on preparations for the publication of his first historical non-fiction essay “Gaul and France”. On the pages of this essay, published in 1833, Dumas demonstrated a great knowledge of history, and criticized the monarchy of Louis-Philippe (Duke of Orleans).

Dumas wrote many historical adventure novels and plays which brought him incredible success and worldwide fame. Best known for his trilogy “the Three Musketeers” (1844), “Twenty years later” (1845), “the Vicomte de Bragelone” (1848-1850), “Queen Margot” (1845), “the Count of Monte Cristo” (1845-1846).

Greatest success as a playwright Dumas made thanks to the historical drama of “Henry III and his court”, which was delivered in 1829 at the theater of French Comedy. In the 1852-1854 years was published the voluminous work by Alexander Dumas – “My memoirs”.

In 1851 Dumas hastily went to Belgium, hiding from creditors. 1858-1859, the years he spent in Russia several years participated in the struggle for a United Italy, joined the campaign of Giuseppe Garibaldi. After a long travel, which almost destroyed it, the writer returns home.

December 5, 1870, Alexandre Dumas has died. His works have been published and screened in many countries.

1925 — Wladyslaw Reymont, Polish writer, Nobel prize laureate (“Men”, “1794”, “Promised land”).

Born may 7, 1867 in the family of a village organist. His parents wanted him to become a priest. Dropped out of school, often changed his profession, traveled extensively in Poland and Europe, was an apprentice tailor in Warsaw (1880-1884) and actor in a traveling troupe (1884-1887), worked as a railroad employee.

In 1893 he settled in Warsaw and lived literary jobs.

The work combines the traditions of critical realism with elements of naturalism and symbolism. A small part of the artistic heritage are the poems.

Author of short stories, novellas, novels, varied in theme and genres. In the collections of “Meeting” (1897), “Before the dawn” (1902), in the story “True” (1899) shows the everyday life of the village. In the novels “Komediantka” (1896) and “Fermentation” (1897) depicted the life and mores of provincial officials, the actor’s environment.

A multi-threaded novel “Promised land” (h. 1-2, 1899) reconstructs the emergence of capitalist łódź, depicted with antiresistance positions, the life of the Lodz textile magnates. Novel adapted for the big screen (Andrzej Wajda, 1975).

The pinnacle of creativity is the novel “the Peasants” (vol. 1-4, 1904-1909; Russian translation, 1954), which depicted rural life in a caste contradictions and psychological conflicts. For this novel as “outstanding national epic” Reymont was dosten the Nobel prize for literature in 1924.

The author of the novel “the Vampire” (1911) and the historical trilogy “1794” (1913-1918) about Poland the end of the XVII century and the national liberation uprising led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

1950 — Sri Aurobindo, Indian philosopher, poet, revolutionary and organizer of the national liberation movement of India, guru, founder of Integral yoga (b. 1872).

1987 — Rifai Miroslav (Miroslav Rafaj), Czech writer, novelist (b. 1934).

1993 — Yevgeny I. Gabrilovich, a Soviet writer, writer.

Born 17 (29) September, 1899, in Voronezh, in the family Apothecary. He studied at the law faculty of Moscow state University. In 20-ies Gabrilovich played the piano in the ensemble According to V. Ya., called “in the RSFSR First eccentric orchestra jazz band parnaha Valentine”.

Was published as a novelist since 1921, he was a Literary center of the constructivists. In 30 years of journalism wrote about the industrial construction and collectivization. A member of the Union of Soviet writers (1934). The participant of the great Patriotic war. During the great Patriotic war gave Stalin prize to the Fund of defence.

Professor Of VGIK (1962).

“Last autograph” (t/f, series, 1998, dir. Oleg Korvyakov, operas. Igor Mogilevich) — last lifetime memories of Evgeny Gabrilovich, in the form of conversations with his son, Aleksei Gabrilovich.

E. I. Gabrilovich died on 5 December 1993. He was buried in Moscow at Novodevichy cemetery.

1995 — Dmitri Antonovitch Volkogonov, political activist, writer (“Soviet soldier”, “the Phenomenon of heroism,” a series of “Leaders”: “Lenin”, “Stalin”, “Trotsky”), laureate of the State prize of the Russian Federation (posthumously).

2005 — Vladimir Nikolaevich Toporov, a Russian scholar (b. 1928).