Today, December 4 in history

In this day were born:

34 — AVL Persia Flaccus, Roman poet and satirist.

1595 — Jean Chaplin (pictured), French writer, theorist of literature, one of the organizers and first members of the French Academy.

The son of a notary. At a young age he studied Latin and Greek, and then Spanish and Italian. Gained fame and location of cardinal Richelieu due to his Preface to the poem of Marino’s Adonis (L Adone), first published in Paris in 1623 In the future, opting for the classic position, from this Preface, which contained a compromise solution to the problem of “pleasure” and “good” in art, Chaplin sought to deny.

After the death of the cardinal was close to Colbert who took the lists of French and foreign writers, worthy of a Royal pension.

Elected in 1634 a member of the French Academy (chair No. 7), he came to the idea of the necessity to compile a dictionary of the French language and, on behalf of the cardinal, drew up a plan of the academic dictionary, which glorified Academy.

The letter-treatise Shapley “Substantiation rules twenty-four hours…” (Demostration de la Regle des Vingt-Quatre heures, 1630) was an important step in the formation of normative classic aesthetics. In collaboration with Valentin Conrrol Chaplin on behalf of Richelieu was the opinion of the Academy about the “side” of Corneille (Sentiments de l’academie Francoise sur la trage-comedie “Le Cid”, 1637). In this review Chaplin sought to give a balanced evaluation of tragicomedy, to reconcile the criticism of the play (which demanded Richelieu) with the praise of the famous playwright. Chaplin is also the author of the treatise “On the reading of old novels” (De la lecture des vieux romans, publ. in 1870) and a French translation of a picaresque novel, MATEO alemán’s “guzmán of Alfarache” (1619-1620).

1751 — Giovanni Pindemonte, Italian poet and playwright.

1795 – Thomas Carlyle, English essayist, historian and philosopher.

Born in Scotland, in the family of a village Mason. Before showing outstanding abilities to the Humanities, he enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, and in 1814 he graduated.

The philosophical worldview of a Carlyle and its look at the history of mankind was influenced by the German romantics, mainly Fichte and Schelling.

In the 1920-ies, the industrial revolution was almost over, the big bourgeoisie has laid the Foundation of its aesthetic culture. The son of a bricklayer, a rural teacher, professional writer, at the end of life rector of Edinburgh University, Carlyle joined the bourgeois cult of the strong personality aristocratic pantheism renderedmessage type. He put forward the theory of chosen people who should rule the world. His political-historical and philosophical theories had a significant influence on the development of English social thought.

The undoubted merit of Carlyle is the creation of methods of “organic criticism”. His other merit is the creation of the philosophical novel-pamphlet “Stitch tailor” the novel is largely autobiographical. They are developed according to the “philosophy of clothes”, the whole world, the whole story is presented as a series of external, transient attire, masks behind which resides the eternal divine essence is the only reality.

At best, his work “History of the French revolution” (1837) Carlyle justifies the overthrow of the monarchy. The pamphlets “Chartism” (1840) and “Now and before” (1843), the author, expressing sincere sympathy to the workers, calls himself a supporter of feudal socialism.

In 1841 he published a book Carlyle, greatly influenced European historical science, “On heroes and heroes worship” (1841). He proposed to consider the history of the world in the context of the life and deeds of great men. Developing this concept, Carlyle in 1845-1846 he wrote the book “the Letters and speeches of Oliver Cromwell”, and in 1858-1864, he worked on his most major work – “History of Friedrich II of Prussia” in 13 volumes.

Thomas Carlyle died on 5 February 1881 in London.

1825 — Aleksey Nikolayevich Pleshcheyev, Russian writer, petrasevic (mind. 1893).

1872 – al. Altaev (Margarita V. yamschikova, nee Rokotov), the Russian writer. Heroes historical and biographical books Margarita Vladimirovna Yamshchikova printed under strict male pseudonym al. Altaev were many famous people.

1875 — Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet-existentialist (d. 1926).

1882 — Yakov Isidorovich Perelman, one of the founders of the genre of popular scientific literature, and founder of entertaining science.

Born in Bialystok (now Bialystok is part of Poland). His mother was a primary school teacher and his father a bookkeeper. For the first time Jacob has published his work in 16 years. It was the essay “concerning expected fire to rain” in the newspaper “Grodno provincial sheets”.

In the essay, he debunked myths about the meteor rains and gave a scientific explanation of the celestial phenomenon. The essay was published under the pseudonym “Y. P.” the law of the time forbade students to be published in the press.

After graduating from high school, Perelman enrolled at the Forestry Institute in St. Petersburg. In 1901 he started working for the magazine “Nature and people”, wrote the essay “the Century of asteroids”, and in 1905 he became the Executive Secretary in the same journal.

In 1913, out in print first part of the book “Entertaining physics”. The book was a huge success. In the same year, Perelman begins regular correspondence with K. E. Tsiolkovsky. In 1916, published the second part of the book “Entertaining physics”.

From 1919 to 1929 he was editor of the first Soviet scientific-popular magazine “In the workshop of nature.” Corresponded regularly with Korolev to promote space knowledge. In 1934 he met with H. G. wells, during his visit to the USSR.

Over the years he has published over a thousand articles and notes, not including 40 scientific and educational books, 18 textbooks. In the USSR, he published more than 450 times, was printed around 13 million copies of his books, the most famous of them: Living mathematics, Fun algebra, Fun math, astronomy Amusing, Entertaining mechanics. Interesting physics.

It is named after a crater on the back side of the moon.

1896 – Nikolay Semyonovich Tikhonov, Russian poet and novelist, and public figure.

1903 – Lazar Lagin (real name Ginsburg), writer, publicist, storyteller.

Was born in Vitebsk. Pseudonym of the writer – “Lagin” button, enter in all the official documents had been made of the first syllables of name and surname.

He was lucky – passed his bullet and bomb civilian died in a typhus delirium. After the war, met in Rostov-on-don, Mayakovsky showed him my poems, and they liked the poet. But to write poetry Lagin did not.

He debuted as a reporter in 1922. In the Preface to one of his books he ironically remembers the first verse trial: “frankly, I have great merit to the domestic literature: I time and forever ceased to write poetry.” To laugh at yourself, the writer was not afraid…

Lagin had a beautiful voice and studied for a year at the vocal Department of the Minsk Conservatory. However, it is not made of theoretical disciplines and fled. After graduating from the Department of Economics of the Moscow Institute of national economy, he served in the army, has prepared a thesis at the Institute of red professors and was withdrawn from there to a permanent job in the newspaper “Pravda”.

“Nomenclature” tops Lazar Lagin reached in 1934, and became Deputy editor-in-chief of the magazine “Crocodile”, whose correspondent remained until the last days of life.

Meanwhile, gaining momentum machine of repression. After the massacre of the chief editor of “Crocodile” Mikhail Koltsov Lagin could become the next victim. I took the trouble Alexander Fadeev, sending Lazarus Lagin on a long trip to the island of Spitsbergen. It was there, in the Arctic, the writer the idea of his famous tale “the old Man Hottabych”.

After the war in the late 1940s, the ideological Department of the Central Committee decided that “the old Man hottabyche” not quite right emphases and recommended to make appropriate adjustments. To disobey was impossible. When Lagin began to shred its own offspring, he had a heart attack.

He is the author of the novels “Patent AB” (1947), “Island of disappointment” (1951), “Ataviya Proxima” (1956), “Eaten archipelago” (1963), which is a combination of social pamphlet with fantasy and adventure genre. On modern and pre-revolutionary tells the novel “the Blue man” (1966). Published and other works of the author. Lagin books translated into many languages.

1957 – Nikolay Vladimirovich Kolyada, a famous writer and playwright, whose plays are popular and have been successfully staged in many theaters of the capital and other cities of the country.

On this day died:

1131 — Omar Khayyam (Giyasaddin Abul-Fatah Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam Nishapuri), Persian and Tajik poet, mathematician, philosopher. His Rubaiyat (quatrains) were popular.

Born 18 may 1048 in Nishapur, in the family of campers. At the age of 8 years old Omar knew the Koran from memory, studied mathematics, astronomy and philosophy. At age 12 he became a disciple of Nikopolskogo madrasah. Hayam brilliantly completed a course on Islamic law and medicine, receiving the degree of Hakim (doctor). Medicine interested him little, he devoted his time to the study of the writings of the famous mathematician and astronomer Thabit Ibn Curry, as well as the writings of the Greek mathematicians.

When he was 16 years old, from the epidemic to die by his parents. Omar sells his father’s house and workshop and sent to Samarkand – at that time recognized in the East scientific and cultural center.

In Samarkand Khayyam becomes first a disciple of one of the madrasas, but after a few performances in the debates he so impressed everyone with his scholarship that he immediately made a mentor.

Like other prominent scientists of that time, Omar did not stay long in any city. Just four years later, he left Samarkand and moved to Bukhara, where he began working in the storage of books. In the ten years that the scientist has lived in Bukhara, he wrote four fundamental treatise on mathematics.

In 1074 he was invited to Isfahan, the center of the state of Sanjarov, to the court of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I. He became a spiritual mentor of the Sultan. However, in 1092, with the death of his patron he Sultan Malik Shah and the vizier Nizam al-Mulk, Isfahan period of his life ends. Accused of godless freethinking , the poet is forced to leave the Seljuk capital.

Khayyam remained for centuries due to its quatrains – wise, full of humor, guile and audacity Rubaiyat. Long been forgotten, but his work became known to Europeans in modern times thanks to the translations of Edward Fitzgerald.

1732 — John Gay (b. 1685), English poet and playwright.

1900 — Alexander Sheller (b. 1838), writer (“Life Supova”, “the Lord Obnosov”, “Rotten swamp”).

1932 — Gustav Meyrink (b. 1868), Austrian writer.

1933 — Stefan Gheorghe (b. 1868), German poet-symbolist (“the Seventh ring”, “the New Kingdom”).

The events of the day:

2009 – among Buckminster joined Chitalka