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Today, December 30 in history

In this day were born:

1819Theodor Fontane, German writer

1865Joseph Rudyard Kipling (pictured), English writer and poet, Nobel prize winner 1907.

Born in Bombay (India). The father, a prominent specialist in the history of Indian art, was the Museum’s Director. Mother came from a prominent London family. Both grandfathers were Methodist priests.

At the age of six the boy was sent to England. In 1882 sixteen-year-old Rudyard returned to India and got an assistant editor of the Lahore newspaper. Not on years developed young man surprised the local community perceptive judgments about the secret springs of colonial rule and knowledge of India, drawn mostly in conversations with encyclopedic educated father.

Annual leave in the Himalayan city of Simla became the source of many works of the writer. Since 1889, Kipling traveled the world, wrote the road notes. In October, he came to London and almost immediately became a celebrity. Starting with “the Ballad of East and West”, he went to a new style of English poetry, creating “Song of the barracks”.

Soon due to overwork health writer deteriorated, and the greater part of the year 1891 he spent in travel in America and the British dominions. Back in January, 1892, married the sister of an American publisher W. Balestier.

For four years in America, Kipling wrote his best works. The stories included in the collections “the Weight of lies” (1893) and “the Labors of the day” (1898), poems about ships, the sea and sailors, pioneers, collected in the book “the Seven seas” and two “jungle Books” (1894-1895). In 1896 he wrote the book “intrepid explorers”.

On top of fame and wealth Kipling avoided publicity, refused the title of poet laureate and honors. In 1902 he settled in a remote village in the County of Sussex. In 1901 released novel, “Kim”, his farewell to India, in 1902 – a delightful children’s book “Tales for a reason.”

He wrote until the beginning of 1930-ies, but the most famous remained his works of the early 20th century.

Kipling died in London on 18 January 1936. He was buried in poet’s Corner in Westminster Abbey.

1869 Stephen Butler Leacock, canadian writer. Professor such serious Sciences like political economy and history, became famous as the author of humorous stories.

1905Daniil Kharms (real name Yuvachev), writer.

Born in Saint-Petersburg. His father, a former naval officer brought to trial in 1883 for complicity in the terror people’s will, spent four years in solitary confinement and more than ten years in prison, where he wrote a number of memoirs and mystical nature. A mother, a noblewoman, was in charge in 1900-e years a shelter for former katorzhanin in St. Petersburg.

Educated in St. Petersburg privileged German school, Daniel has acquired a thorough knowledge of German and English languages. In 1925 he gave himself up to literary work, engaging in intensive self-education with a special emphasis in philosophy and psychology. Quickly gained notoriety in the circles of literary avant-garde under the pseudonym, which was the plural of the English word “harm” – “misfortunes”.

From the beginning his work is dominated by games installation. From 1928 to 1941 he comes out about 20 children’s books. These works give a unique solution its gaming elements, but, as evidenced in his journals and letters, they were written purely for earnings and the special significance of the author they are not attached. They were printed through the efforts of the S. Y. Marshak, the attitude towards them was negative criticism of the leadership.

In 1931, not printed works were regarded as “poetry class enemy”, he was arrested and exiled to Kursk. In 1932 he managed to return to Leningrad. The nature of his work is changing: the poetry fades into the background, conceding superiority to prose. On the shoes of the character, the entertainer, the instigators and the wizard appears a deliberately naive narrator-observer, impartial to cynicism. The last stories (“Knights”, “Upadana”, “Disturbance”, “Rehabilitation”) imbued with a feeling of complete hopelessness, the omnipotence of crazy brutality, cruelty and vulgarity.

In August 1941, Kharms was arrested for “defeatist remarks”. 2 Feb 1942, he died in prison from exhaustion.

1919Francis Karsak, French science fiction writer, scientist, geologist and archaeologist.

On this day died:

1944Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel prize for literature in 1915.

Born 29 January 1866 in the family of notary. He graduated from the lycée Louis-Le-Grand in Paris and entered the high school of the Ecole Normal. Then Rolland lived for two years in Italy, where he studied fine art and music.

Upon returning to France in 1895, Rolland has defended his thesis on “the origin of the modern Opera house. The history of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti” and received the title of Professor of the history of music. Rolland lectured at the Ecole Normal, and at the Sorbonne, wrote several works on the history of music. He also began to write works of art, the first of which was the tragedy of “St. Louis”.

After staging the cycle of plays about the French revolution (“Wolves”, “the Triumph of reason”, “Danton”, “Fourteenth of July”) he became known. Most popular writer’s works are novels “Jean Christophe”, “the Enchanted soul”, “colas breugnon”.

During the First world war Rolland participated in European organizations, pacifists, he wrote many anti-war articles. In 1915 received the Nobel prize for literature.

Rolland maintained relations with Russian writers Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky, as well as albert Einstein and albert Schweitzer.

The writer died on 30 December 1944 from tuberculosis.

1988Yuli Markovich Daniel, Russian poet.