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Today, 3 December, in the history of

In this day were born:

1722 — Grigory Skovoroda, Ukrainian and Russian philosopher, poet, and teacher (d. 1794).

1795 – Rowland hill (pictured), the founder of the modern mail.

Born into a large family of the master steelworker. At age 12 he was already interested in astronomy, mathematics, navigation. But it remained with him all his life.

Rowland hill invented the pendulum system for hours, perfected the steam engine, modeled a system of underground pneumatic tubes to speed up the forwarding of written communications created its own model of rotaprint. He conducted experiments with gunpowder, studied the phenomena occurring in highly compressed gas, worked to develop equipment for road construction.

Along with one of the five brothers, he has written several books on various aspects of education; founded a secondary school with laboratories, a library, a gymnasium, and a swimming pool. The school enjoyed great popularity. To learn it came even children from other countries.

In 1837, Rowland hill published “post office Reform, its importance and practicability”. In his work he proposed to unify the postage fees across the country to introduce pre-payment for the shipment using the “small pieces of paper, enough for them to put a postmark, and are coated on one side with glue, giving the opportunity after moistening to stick them to the letter.”

The efforts of hill, 6 may 1840, was released postage stamps, known in history under the name “penny Black” (on the stamp depicted a profile of Queen Victoria). They organized a special competition of projects of the first postage stamps and envelopes. In the end, the competition received a total of 2,700 proposals and won the project of Charles and Frederick Hits and Henry Cole.

Postal reform and the introduction of brands contributed to the growth of postal services in England, to facilitate the processing of mail and simplify the payment calculation for them. Due to the success of the reform of Rowland hill was adopted by the postal service, becoming in 1854 the Secretary-General of the English postmasters.

Rowland hill hill For their services he was awarded in 1860 by the order of the Bath. He also became a fellow of the Royal society and was awarded an honorary degree from Oxford University.

Sir Rowland hill died in Hampstead (London) August 27, 1879 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

1923 — Harald Brainin, Austrian poet and writer (d. 2006).

1926 — Janka Yukhnovets, Belarusian poet.

1945 — Roman Davidovich Timenchik, literary critic, scholar of Russian literature of the early XX century.

On this day died:

1892 — Afanasy Afanasyevich FET, Russian poet.

Was born on 23 November (5 December) 1820 in the family of landowner Shenshin.

Name FET (more specifically, FET, it. Foeth) became for the poet, as he later recalled, “in the name of all his sufferings and sorrows”. Son Orlovsky landowner Shenshin, Afanasii Neofitosa (1775–1855) and brought them from Germany Carolina Charlotte FET, he was recorded at birth (probably for a bribe), the legitimate son of his parents, although born a month after Charlotte’s arrival in Russia and a year before their marriage. When he was 14 years old, a “bug” in the documents discovered, and he was deprived of surnames, the nobility and Russian citizenship and became a “citizen hessedarmstadt Afanasy FET” (so his father was considered to be the first husband of Charlotte, German FET; who in fact was the father Athanasius — unknown). In 1873 he officially regained the name of Shenshin, but literary works and translations continued to sign name FET (through “e”).

1835-1837 – study at the German private school of Crummer in the town of Verro (now võru city, Estonia). At this time the FET begins to write poetry, showing interest in classical Philology.

1838-1844 — study at Moscow University.

1840 — publication of poetry “Lyrical Pantheon” with the participation of Andrey Grigoriev, a friend of feta at the University.

1842 – published in the magazines “Moskvityanin” and “Domestic notes”.

1845 — recruitment in the Military order cuirassier regiment, becoming a cavalryman. In 1846 he was awarded the first officer’s rank.

1850 – the second collection feta, positive reviews in the magazines “Contemporary”, “Moskvityanin” and “Domestic notes”. The death of Mary of Kuzminichna Lazic, beloved of the poet, the memory of which is devoted to the poem “Talisman”, the poem “Old letters”, “You suffer, I suffer…”, “No, I have not changed. Deep into old age…” and many other poems.

1853 — FET transferred to a guards regiment stationed near St. Petersburg. The poet is often in St. Petersburg, then the capital. Meetings feta with Turgenev, Nekrasov, Goncharov, etc. the Convergence of editorial Board of the journal “Sovremennik”

1854 — service in the Baltic Port of, described in his memoirs, “My memories”

1856 — the third collection of feta. Editor — Turgenev

1857 — marriage of FET M. P. botkine, sister of doctor S. P. Botkin

1858 — the poet resigns guards with the rank of staff-captain, settled in Moscow

1859 — a break with the magazine “Sovremennik”

1863 — output two-volume collection of poems feta

1867 — FET elected justice of the peace for 11 years

1873 — returned to the nobility and surname Shenshin. Literary works and translations of the poet and later signed with the name of FET.

1883-1891 — the publication of four issues of the collection “Evening lights”

1892, 21 Nov — the death of feta in Moscow. According to some, his death of a heart attack preceded the suicide attempt[3]. Buried in the village Kleymenovo, the family estate Sensenich.

1894 — Robert Louis Stevenson (Robert Lewis Balfour), English writer and poet.

Born November 13, 1850 in Edinburgh, the son of an engineer. His father designed lighthouses. Stevenson received his law degree, graduated from the University of Edinburgh in 1875.

But to write began in his student days. The first book “Pentland uprising” was written in 1866. At the same time changes its name Balfour on Stevenson.

After graduation, settled in France, toured Europe and America, happens in Germany, Switzerland, England. In 1880 marrying a divorced American woman by Frances Osborne.

Stevenson wrote in the genre of historical adventure novel. His most famous work “treasure Island” was created in 1883 and three years later translated into Russian language.

Among the other creations of the writer is to celebrate the “Prince Otto”, “Black arrow”, “Owner Ballantrae”. Two of the novel “Weir Germiston” and “St. Ives” Stevenson did not have time to finish during his lifetime. The last was finished A. Quilliam Cochem in 1897.

Some books the writer has produced together with his stepson Lloyd Osbourne (“shipwrecked”) and his wife Frances Stevenson (“once More New Arabian nights”). The novel “shipwrecked” has become a favorite work of Jorge Borges.

Especially popular are the books of Robert Louis Stevenson the adventures of Prince Florizel and the psychological novel “Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”.

In 40 years, Stevenson settled in Samoa, where he died four years later on 3 December 1894. The estate of Stevenson island called Vailima (five Rivers), here in a tropical climate was created many of his best works.

1926 – Galina Arturovna Benislavskaya, friend and literary Secretary of poet Sergey Esenin.

Born in 1897 (exact data is not preserved). Galina studied at the gymnasium in St. Petersburg, from which he graduated in 1917 with a gold medal. In the same year, striving for independence, Galina went to Kharkov and entered the natural faculty of the University.

In 1923 she worked in the newspaper “the Poor” journalist. At that time Benislavskaya often visited literary and performance poets. On one of these evenings 19 Sep 1920, she first saw Sergei Yesenin and heard him speak. At the end of 1920 in the cafe “Pegasus Stall” was their personal acquaintance. Soon Galina was included in the circle of friends Yesenin people.

Some time Sergei Esenin lived in Beneslavskii. 3 October 1921, after meeting with Isadora Duncan Yesenin was Beneslavskii, with the result that she came to the clinic of nervous diseases.

After returning from a trip abroad and bursting with Duncan Yesenin again settled at Beneslavskii. And in the summer of 1925 before marrying Tolstoy Yesenin broke up with Galina. She took it hard, was treated for a nervous disorder at the time he left Moscow.

During the funeral Yesenin Galina was not in Moscow. In December 1926, she committed suicide on the grave of Yesenin at the Vagankovo cemetery, leaving a note: “December 3, 1926. Suicides here, though I know that after that even more dogs will be hung on Yesenin… But for him, and I don’t care. In this grave for me all the most expensive…”.

1941 — Pavel Filonov, Russian painter, art theorist, poet (b. 1883).

1943 – Nordahl Grieg, the Norwegian writer.

Born 1 November 1902 in Bergen in the family of a University teacher. He predicted a University career, but in his early years, he preferred wandering in continental Europe and very adventurous career as a journalist.

In 1920 he interrupted training at the University of Oslo, going a simple sailor on a cargo ship to Australia. The result of this adventure was released to them his first collection of poems “Around the Cape of Good Hope” in 1922, a novel about the situation of seamen in the merchant marine “Ship goes on”, published in 1924.

His best novel “the World must still be young”, released in 1939, was created under the impression of the Moscow trials and the involvement in the Civil war in Spain.

In 1940 Grieg fought against the German occupiers, entered the Norwegian government in London, wrote a wonderful cycle of poems, feeding the spirit of Resistance.

The writer died 3 Dec 1943, carrying out a journalistic assignment, shot down over Berlin English bomber.

1949 — Pavel Petrovich Bazhov, the author of Ural tales.

Born 15 (27) January 1879 in the family of a worker Sysertsky plant (now Sverdlovsk region). As a child he lived in Polevskoy. Among the best students graduated from the parish school, then it was the Ekaterinburg religious school, where he studied from 10 to 14 years and finally then in 1899 he graduated from the Perm theological Seminary. Worked as a teacher in Yekaterinburg and Kamyshlov. Married his pupil, the family had four children.

During the Civil war he fought on the side of the Reds in July 1919 — arrived in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan) to restore the destroyed during the failed uprising of prisoners in Ust-Kamenogorsk prison Bolshevik cell. Under the guise of an insurance agent liaised between guerrilla “Red mountain eagles”.

After the liberation of Ust-Kamenogorsk from the whites, Bazhov in the centre of activity. He became editor, and in essence, organizer, originator, maker-up newspaper. At the same time he is charged with the responsibility to “maintain a General supervision over the work of the education Department”. He creates a teacher-training courses, organizes schools for literacy, taking part in the restoration of Ridder mine in… In July of 1920 in the Kazakh volost sent 87 of trained teachers. August 10, 1920 under the leadership of P. P. Bazhov. G. Kalashnikov passed in the First district Congress of Soviets.

In may 1921, P. Bazhov, due to severe illness, and at the request of the Executive Committee kamyshlovskogo, returns to his home in the Urals, in Kamyshlov. There continues journalistic and literary career, writing books on the history of the Urals, gather the folklore record. His first book of essays “the Ural was” published in 1924.

In 1936, the magazine published the first of Ural tales “Girl Azovka”, and in 1939 published the first edition of the Ural tales “malachite box”. This book if the author has repeatedly updated with new tales.

Died p. P. Bazhov 3 Dec 1950 in Moscow. Buried in Sverdlovsk at the Ivanovo cemetery.

1958 — Sergei Nikolayevich Sergeyev-Tsensky (b. 1875), writer, traveler (“Sevastopol’skaya Strada”, “Transformation of Russia”).

1999 — John Paul Larkin (b. 1942), better known as Scatman John (Scatman John Scatman or simply) is an American jazz musician and poet who created a unique style of music that combines scat singing and techno.

2000 — Gwendolyn Brooks (b. 1917), U.S. poet.

The events of the day:

1872 – On a fragment of one of the plates with a passage from the Sumerian epic discovered the beginning of the legend of the deluge.

On 3 December 1872, the British Museum, George Smith, printing engraver on copper, and a unique expert on Assyrian cuneiform, spoke at a meeting of the London society of biblical archaeology with a sensational message.

As a result of decoding the clay cuneiform tablets found during excavations of the ancient city of Nineveh, on a fragment of one of them he was able to read a passage from the Sumerian epic of the III Millennium BC on Gilgamesh, which tells the beginning of the legend of the deluge. Textually it was close to biblical, but older than her 700 years!

In January of the following year Edwin Arnold, the publisher of the newspaper The Daily Telegraph, organised by the newspaper Smith’s expedition to Nineveh in order to find the missing pieces of history about the flood. Smith has managed to find not only this work, but also plates with the chronology of the Babylonian dynasties.

In November 1873 the British Museum has allocated funds for a second expedition, during which Smith continued excavations on the site of Koyunjik.

Three years later the British Museum again sent Smith to the excavations of the remnants of the library of Ashurbanipal. In the village Ikinji North of Aleppo, he fell ill with dysentery and died in Aleppo. He is survived by his wife and children, whom Queen Victoria granted an annual pension of £ 150.