The Ekaterinburg publishing house sold, without exaggeration, sensational project – back to the history of the Urals the name of an outstanding personality, on the scale comparable to the founding fathers of the mountainous region by Tatishchev and de by Peninim. It Anikita Arrow was the first to officially name our region of the Urals. He held the position of chief mountain chief in Yekaterinburg for five years and during that time managed to bring the local plants of a systemic crisis and more than two-fold increase in gold mining.
Nikolay Kretov shows on an old map of Yekaterinburg, where in the XVIII century was located the Board of the Ural factories. Photo: Ksenia Dubichev/RG
By today’s standards this General-major’s position can be compared with polpredstve: Arrow reported directly to the monarch. In the 70 years he began to write “the Russian mining history” – analysis of the mining industry. The manuscript is 200 years was kept in the archives of the St. Petersburg mining University, was not published ever. A year author and scientific editor Nikolay Kretov decipher unintelligible written and iscelenie page. What role was played by Anikita Arrow in the development of the economy of the region, the researcher told to the correspondent “RG”.
Arrow came to the Urals, in fact, as a crisis Manager?
Nikolay Kretov: Yes, at that time, after a not very well thought-out privatization in Russia has shown signs of decline and crisis. The eternal engine of the Russian economy made the country a great power – powerful state, more precisely, the state-owned sector was formed in the Urals in Tatishchevo and de Gennine. But in the middle of the XVIII century, under Elizabeth, he virtually ceased to exist: plants were distributed to private – the particular – hold. For a state this large-scale privatization had a major impact on the state-owned sector was drained of blood. Recovered in four to five years: the most powerful plants, such as Goroblagodatskoe, returned to the Treasury, but half a dozen still remained in private hands.
Later, under Catherine II, not invented anything better than to destroy the control system of mining established in Tatishchevo and de Gennine: this destructive reform was not in the entire history of mining.
I wonder what he would say about the current state of the economy?
Nikolay Kretov: I Think it is unlikely he would have changed the opinion. On assuming office, Anikita Sergeevich caught bloodless state of the industry and destroyed the control system. It reminds nothing to you? He describes the situation as “total disaster” and “the defeat of mining”. We hope, he writes that the descendants will consider this ugly experience and this will never happen again.
At that time Russia did not have managerial personnel, equal fostered in the Urals, here knew how to work and what to do in crisis situations
To wrest the factories from private hands to him, of course, was not too tough. But he began to recreate the control system.
To build a vertical state?
Nikolay Kretov: And he built her by reform and conservative methods – has increased the influence of the state, where possible. In my understanding his work is very reminiscent of the current situation. In the five years Arrow streamlined office, successfully brought the Ural out of the crisis and received this award. His other achievement is the development of gold mining: he squeezes everything you can from wholly the state sector. With him for five years, gold production has increased more than two times. Here was a Manager!
All this thanks to his talent?
Nikolay Kretov: Not only. At that time Russia did not have managerial personnel, equal fostered in the Urals – created by de Peninim school, the first call which passed father Arzawa. Here knew how to work and what to do in crisis situations.
In the eighteenth century “pupils” this school has built a strong state-owned factories. When a “higher” interest in the period, Biron gave them the immigrants from Saxony, those for three or four years, managed just to raze everything to the ground: benefit from the most promising plants, Goroblagodatskoe for example, is missing. That’s when everyone was convinced that the local managers – people standing and in some ways superior specialists from Western Europe.
Gold, not the people. Speaking of noble metal: how Arcemu managed to make such a breakthrough?
Nikolay Kretov: gold rush in the Urals when Arzoo has not yet begun, but serious interest in gold has been. Anikita Sergeevich gave myself credit for the development of new technology zolotarivka. It is specially several times visited the Berezovsky crafts, to understand the nature of occurrence of metals. To increase production has taken a number of measures, inter alia – the transfer of the smelting of the concentrate in Yekaterinburg. Let me explain: at that time, gold-bearing rock was washed in the factories – two large and three small factories. Before the arrival of Anikita Sergeyevich to get precious metal, heavy residue (concentrate) was melted there on Berezovsky fisheries. And one of his first orders was to move the smelting of concentrate directly to Ekaterinburg.
To combat theft, I suppose?
Nikolay Kretov: In 1798 he arrived in Ekaterinburg, and a year later built a building mountain laboratory (now the College named after Polzunov) below the precious metal was melted literally under his supervision. And once gold production has increased two and half times! Since the Ural has become the gold region, and Arzawa awarded the order. I think if he also extolled the Emperor Paul, more medals would have received for that gold.
And how he builds relationships with the oligarchs?
Nikolay Kretov: let’s Say, judged according to their works. For example, Savva Yakovlev responded with great respect: the only privatized enterprises, which has overcome the crisis and came in a flourishing condition, – plants of the family Yakovlev, Verkh-Isetskiy including. But Turczaninovii spoke with irritation, saying, look what they did to Polewski, Seversky, Sysertskoe plants, what a loss for the Treasury.
Arrow used administrative methods of pressure on business?
Nikolay Kretov: non-economic levers it was not used. And as a result, in five years no one had a disagreement, and it is rare – remember that by Tatishchev was.
In your opinion, what is the main merit Arzawa?
Nikolay Kretov: He took the Ural out of the crisis. Without it, our region may not have been what it already three centuries. After the reign of Catherine the development could go the other way – there would be factories in every province. When Arzoo has developed a huge mining region, regardless of the administrative division. And Anikita Sergeevich, in fact, gave him a name: he was the first in the orders, and after the manuscript began to use the word “Ural”. He wrote about the Urals (in the modern sense is a land or region). To him plants were called Siberian or Perm or Orenburg province, and Arrow introduced the concept of “Ural plants”. This is an extremely important point that no one has rated for two hundred years until the manuscript was not available.
Anikita Arrow, “the Russian mining history”:
“Everyone would be flattering to be in his possession such plants, giving them a sudden big capital… From this we can conclude, Colico our descendants must beware of such, to the detriment of the public interest, carelessly… This remark not for anything else here listed as to be cautious about our future descendants, in the event the outputs of any public institutions.”
Anikita Arsov was born in Ekaterinburg into a family of the mining officer, studied at the Ekaterinburg school, went to mountain service, the first from the Urals and graduated from Moscow University, with Berg College acquired the qualification of assay master. Build factories, supervised them. With the name Arzawa is the introduction into metallurgical production of a number of innovation – machinery, piston, air blast, furnaces, devices for measuring the strength of cast iron. In the years from 1797 till 1802 – the main chief of the office of the Chief factories of the Board. Then took the “poluustav” position in the Senate Committee on the reorganization of the mining Department. He was awarded two orders of St. Vladimir and order of St. Anne for the doubling of gold production in the Urals. Retired in 1807 worked on the manuscript of “Russian mining history.”